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Everything You Must to Know About Car Batteries

Knowledge is power when it comes to your car’s battery and electrical system. In fact, it’s your ride’s heart and soul. The last thing you want is to be left stranded with a dead battery. The more you know about your battery and electrical system, the less likely you’ll get stuck. At Firestone Complete Auto Care, we’re here to help you understand just what’s going on with your vehicle’s battery and electrical system.

On average, a battery will last 3 to 5 years, but driving habits and exposure to extreme elements can shorten the life of your car battery. At Firestone Complete Auto Care, we offer a free battery check-up with every visit to our store. This is a quick diagnostic check to estimate the temperature at which your battery may fail. It also gives you some idea how much battery life you have left. One little test tells you if your battery is good to go.

Battery Knowledge

How exactly does a car battery work?

The car battery provides the jolt of electricity necessary to power all the electrical components in your vehicle. Talk about a pretty huge responsibility. Without battery power, your car, as you’ve probably noticed, won’t start.

Let’s take a look at how that powerful little box works:

  • A chemical reaction puts your car in action: Your battery converts chemical energy into the electrical energy necessary to power your car, delivering voltage to the starter.
  • Keep the electric current steady: Not only does your battery provide the energy required to start your car, it’s also stabilizing the voltage (that’s the term for the energy supply) in order to keep your engine running. A lot’s riding on the battery. Call it the ‘little box that could.’

The car battery may be small, but the power it provides is huge. Test your battery now with our Virtual Battery Tester.

Find the right Interstate Battery for your specific vehicle, at the right price — right now.

How do Interstate batteries compare to other car battery brands?

We stock these quality brand batteries — and install them too.

  • Manufactured by Johnson Controls: the world leader in battery quality with 80+ years of innovation.
  • Interstate is #1: Interstate Batteries are the #1 automotive replacement batteries in America with 15 million batteries sold every year – the quality and reliability is in the numbers.

Symptoms & Procedures

Are there any warning signs that may indicate my battery is on the fritz?

“If I only knew sooner.” We’ve all been there before. Fortunately, there are various indications and symptoms that your battery may need replacement:

  1. Slow engine crank: When you attempt to start the vehicle, the cranking of the engine is sluggish and takes longer than normal to start. You’d best describe it as the “rur rur rur” starting noise sound.
  2. Check engine light: The check engine light sometimes appears when your battery power is weak. Strange system indicator lights–such as check engine and low coolant lights–could mean there’s a problem with your battery. (It could also just mean you need more coolant).
  3. Low battery fluid level: Car batteries typically have a part of the casing that’s translucent so you can always keep an eye on your battery’s fluid level. You can also inspect it by removing the red and black caps if they are not sealed (most modern car batteries now permanently seal these parts).
    • Bottom line: If the fluid level is below the lead plates (energy conductor) inside, it’s time to have the battery and charging system tested. When fluid levels drop, it’s typically caused by overcharging (heat).
  4. The swelling, bloating battery case: If your battery casing looks like it ate a very large meal, this could indicate a battery gone bad. You can blame excessive heat for causing your battery case to swell, decreasing your battery life.
  5. Eww, there’s a stinky, rotten egg smell: You may notice a pungent, rotten egg smell (sulfur odor) around the battery. The cause: Battery leaks. Leaking also causes the corrosion around the posts (where the + and – cable connections are located.) The gunk may need to be removed or your car may not start.
  6. Three years + battery age is considered an old timer: Your battery can last well beyond three years but, at the very least, have its current condition inspected on a yearly basis when it reaches the three year mark. Battery life cycles range from three-to-five years depending on the battery. However, driving habits, weather and frequent short trips (under 20 minutes) can drastically shorten the actual life of your car battery.

How do I determine if my battery is too old?

For one thing, you can check the four- or five-digit date code on the cover of your battery case. The first part of the code is key: look for the letter and digit. A letter is assigned to each month — you know, like A for January, B for February and so on. The number that follows nods to the year, as in 9 for 2009 and 1 for 2011. This code tells you when the battery was shipped from the factory to our local Interstate Battery wholesale distributor. The additional digits tell where the battery was made. Car batteries last, on average, three- to-five years. Mind you, there are also weak battery signs to watch for, like a slow engine crank of low fluid level. If your battery case is swollen or bloated, there’s a smelly rotten egg scent coming from the battery or your check engine light appears, trouble may be beyond the bend. And if it’s over three years old? Consider it time for close monitoring. That’s what we’re here for.

Electrical Systems

Can a bad battery harm the charging system or starter?

You bet. If you have a weak ankle, you tend to overcompensate and put more weight–and stress–on the healthy ankle. Same concept with a weak battery. When you have a weak battery, your car ends up putting additional stress on healthy parts. The charging system, starter motor or starter solenoid can be affected.

These parts can malfunction because they’re drawing excessive voltage to compensate for the lack of battery power. Leave this problem unresolved, and you could wind up replacing expensive electrical parts–typically without warning.

Quick Tip: Our Electrical System Check makes sure all the necessary parts are drawing the correct voltage. We’ll know right away if there’s any weak parts that may need immediate replacement. Don’t leave your car’s power to chance, you may end up paying for it later.

How do you know if your alternator isn’t giving your battery enough electricity?

  • The electrical system is possessed. Strange flickering lights or warning lights such as ’Check Engine’ flicker, disappear, and then reappear again. All these malfunctions usually start occurring when the car battery is nearly drained and struggling to provide power. If the alternator is faulty, your battery will no longer receive a charge and is moments away from being totally kaput.
  • The Slow Crank. You’re starting your car, and it keeps turning and turning, eventually starting–or not. This could mean your alternator isn’t charging your battery properly. If you start experiencing the possessed electrical system as well, please stop in to the nearest service facility. Your car could be moments away from a dead battery and alternator.

Let’s review: All the above happens when the battery is not receiving a charge (due to a faulty alternator). Your battery will continue to drain. When it drains completely…well, we all know what happens next: curbed car. And neither you, nor us, want you to go through that.

Quick tip: The sooner we can inspect your vehicle, the less likely you’ll face every drivers’ biggest fear–a car that won’t start. Drive with peace of mind.

Automatic Transmission Diagnose By Symptom

Transmission Noisy, Other Than Valve Resonance

1 Check for gear noise to verify if within normal range.
2 Check linkage for proper adjustment, wear, or damage.
3 Check fluid for proper level and/or contamination.
4 If fluid level is low, add specified fluid to bring level within cross-hatched area at operating temperature.
5 If fluid is contaminated, disassemble, clean, and service transmission, flushing torque converter and cooler.
6 Perform Stall Test. If noise does not stop, proceed to step 7. If noise stops, proceed as follows:
Run transmission in all gears and check for noise.
If noise does not stop in any gear, remove speedometer gear and check for noise. If noise stops, replace speedometer gear.
If noise stops in Low and R only, service forward planetary and/or one-way clutch.
If noise stops in 2nd, High, and R only, service reverse planetary.
If noise stops in High only, service both planetary sets.
7 Check extension housing bushing, seal or propeller shaft.

Automatic Car Starters and Manual Transmissions

3600584969_7179306883_z.jpg - Image courtesy of WatSuonDok, via Flickr (Creative Commons 2.0)

Question: Can a car with a manual transmission use an automatic car starter?

One of my neighbors had a remote starter installed recently. At first I thought it was kind of silly, but I have to admit that I’m getting more and more jealous as the temperature steadily drops. Maybe it is silly, but every time I climb into my freezing cold car, I can’t help but think about how great it would be if it was toasty warm instead.
The only problem is that my car has a manual transmission, and I’m not sure how that would work with an automatic car starter. Is it even possible to get one of these wonderful devices installed in a car that has a manual transmission? And if it is possible, is it safe?


First of all, you are correct on two main points: it is great to jump into a warm car on a cold morning, and a manual transmission is one of the main complicating factors in remote car starter installation. In fact, off the top of my head, there are three main factors that can throw a wrench in the process: an engine that uses a carburetor instead of fuel injection, factory anti-theft devices (i.e. “chipped” keys), and manual transmissions. Each of these complicating factors presents a unique challenge, but the good news is that it’s possible to overcome every single one of them.
Problems with Automatic Car Starters and Manual Transmissions

There are two main issues with manual transmissions that an automatic car starter has to address.

The first is that vehicles with manual transmissions won’t start unless the clutch pedal is fully depressed. This is due to a “clutch interlock” mechanism that is designed to prevent the starter from activating unless someone has pushed down on the clutch pedal.

The other main issue is closely tied into the clutch interlock mechanism. Since it’s necessary to bypass this mechanism in order to remotely start the engine, you could run into trouble if you accidentally leave the vehicle in gear when you shut it off. Although it’s unlikely that the engine will actually be able to start under those conditions, it very likely could lurch forward (or backward if the transmission is in reverse.) If the parking/emergency brake isn’t set, that could result in the vehicle rolling into a building, a roadway, or even hitting a pedestrian.

That means there are actually three things that an automatic car starter has to do if it is installed in a vehicle that has a manual transmission. It has to:

disable the clutch interlock
verify the transmission is in neutral
verify that the parking brake is activated

Solving the Automatic Car Starter Manual Transmission Problems

The simplest issue to take care of is the clutch interlock switch. In order to bypass the need for someone to actually depress the clutch pedal, the automatic car starter has to be wired into the clutch interlock. When you press the start button, the device will then disable the interlock before activating the starter. In a similar process, the device can also be wired to the same parking brake switch that activates the parking brake light on your dash. If that switch isn’t activated, the remote starter will be disabled entirely.

The issue of verifying that the transmission is in neutral is more complicated, and there have been a number of “solutions” throughout the years. Most of these so-called solutions were overly complicated and prone to failure, but modern automatic car starters take advantage of a lot of years of trial and error.

There are a number of ways to ensure that the vehicle is in neutral, but one of the safest involves a multi-step that essentially makes it impossible to accidentally start the vehicle when it is in gear. This setup involves wiring the remote starter in such a way that when you park your vehicle, you push a button on your remote, shut off the key, and the engine keeps running. You then get out of the vehicle and shut the door. The automatic car starter is also wired to the door switch, which signals it to shut the engine off. Since the engine was running when you took your foot off the brake and got out of the car, it has to be in neutral at that point, which means it will be safe to start later on with the remote.

As an added security measure, a system that is set up in this manner will “reset” if the door is opened again prior to activating the remote. That essentially means that if anyone opens the door (and potentially shifts the transmission into gear), the automatic car starter will be deactivated.
Other Automatic Car Starter Issues

Some vehicles present more of a problem than others, but a skilled technician will typically be able to find a safe workaround in just about any case. For instance, some manual transmission vehicles are designed so that the key can only be removed when the transmission is in reverse. That obviously won’t cut it for an automatic starter, but a knowledgeable technician will typically be able to alter the wiring to make it work.

Other vehicles that have carburetors or anti-theft devices require additional equipment and work, and some are best left in the hands of professionals, but even if there isn’t an off the shelf remote start kit that works, there’s almost always a viable solution available.

How to Mix an Automotive Enamel Reducer for a Gallon of Acrylic Enamel Paint

Most cars are painted with an air-powered paint gun.

Automotive acrylic enamel paint must be mixed with a reducer and hardener before application with a paint gun. The reducer allows the paint to flow from the paint gun smoothly. The hardener, sometimes called the catalyst, is what cures the paint giving it a hard, glossy finish. Ensuring the right ratios of both of these chemicals in your paint mixture is essential to a great looking, long lasting paint job. Some brands of paint may vary slightly in their ratios, so be sure to check all labels before you begin.


1.  Pour 1 gallon of acrylic enamel paint into a 5-gallon bucket.

2.  Add reducer in a ratio of four parts paint to every one part reducer. With 1 gallon of paint, 1 quart of reducer will be required.

3.  Use a stir stick to mix the paint and reducer well.

4.   Add one part hardener for every eight parts paint, or 1 pint to 1 gallon. Mix well with a stir stick.

How to Finish Acrylic Enamel

Finish Acrylic Enamel

Before polyurethane paint became standard for auto bodywork, many cars had coats of acrylic enamel. This means that many older cars that need paint touchups need new coats of this enamel, as mixing different kinds of paint on one car is unwise. Although acrylic enamel is ultimately not as durable as polyurethane paint, it can be protected with a clear coat finish added on over the top. This finish adds a professional looking sheen and seals up the new paint job.




Mask off any part of the car on which you do not wish to apply the finish, including windows, mirrors and a wide swath around the car if you are simply doing a touchup job. Plaster the car with newspaper, holding it down with masking tape. If you are touching up the original paint job, include a buffer zone of about three times the size of the patch of paint before you start to mask. The clear coat will be over a much larger area than the added paint.



Add a coat of grease remover over the exposed surface of your vehicle to remove any dirt and dust that may have settled since you painted it. Wipe it clean with a cloth.




Attach your spray gun’s hose to the air compressor and don your protective gear. Fill the spray gun’s canister with the clear coat.



Spray the clear coat over your paint job. If you did a touch up job, spray the clear coat over a much larger area, all the way to the masking. Give the vehicle three coats of the clear coat.



Allow the clear coat to cure for a week.


Tips & Warnings

  • Clear coat is extremely toxic and can lead to neurological damage if you are exposed to it. Take extreme precautions when using it, including wearing a professional full face mask with a separate air supply and a suit.


Customize Your Classic Car – Paint Your Own Rims

Paint your own Rims? Who would have thought something previously done by professionals could be done in your own home.

While, the concept of painting your own rims has been around a few years now, many questions pop up of how to do it and I thought I would share my own experiences with painting my Integra stock rims. I have read up many examples of how to do this, but my first time trying was this year when I chose to refinish my winter rims. I was quite please with the outcome.

First, what the hell do you need to paint your rims? Paint of course 🙂 This is where Duplicolor comes in with their wheel paint. They offer paint colors to match your style coming in white, gunmetal, classic silver and bronze as well. I chose to do mine in gunmetal leaving my lip the stock polished style look. So here are your options:

So you chose your color, bought your paint and are semi-ready. First, you need to sand down your rims. Why? This gives the surface a rough texture so the paint has something to adhere to. Reference the article to polish your rims on how sanding of the rims works. The only difference with this is how far you want to go. In my case, being winter rims painted I chose not to go through the process of stripping the paint on the rims completely. I simply sanded down the surface with 300 grit sandpaper ensuring to make everything sanded equally. This gives the rough surface required for the paint to adhere, and as long as your rims had no damage it should be good enough.

Your rims are sanded; you have your paint and now are ready. First, make sure you clean all sanding dust off the rims and ensure a totally clean surface so the paint will stick and not flake off after your first drive out with your newly painted rims!!! Here are my rims washed and ready to completely dry before painting:

My rims are masked off with newspaper and masking tape. Of course you want to do this so you don’t turn your tires into the color you are painting. I don’t want gunmetal painted tires. Also if you look close enough, you will know that the lip has been masked off as well. So I carefully applied the masking tape on the lip to protect it from being painted as well. Also, you know the little thing you pump your air into, mask that off as well unless you want that to have a color change as well 🙂

The rims are dry, you have masked off what you don’t want painted and now you are ready. Put some newspaper on the ground and place the rim on top of the newspaper. You don’t want to paint the concrete underneath the rim so keep it clean with the newspaper.

Now apply your first coat of paint. Let the paint dry well and next day admire your handiwork and results.

Customize Your Classic Car – Paint Your Own Rims

Paint your own Rims? Who would have thought something previously done by professionals could be done in your own home.

While, the concept of painting your own rims has been around a few years now, many questions pop up of how to do it and I thought I would share my own experiences with painting my Integra stock rims. I have read up many examples of how to do this, but my first time trying was this year when I chose to refinish my winter rims. I was quite please with the outcome.

First, what the hell do you need to paint your rims? Paint of course 🙂 This is where Duplicolor comes in with their wheel paint. They offer paint colors to match your style coming in white, gunmetal, classic silver and bronze as well. I chose to do mine in gunmetal leaving my lip the stock polished style look. So here are your options:

So you chose your color, bought your paint and are semi-ready. First, you need to sand down your rims. Why? This gives the surface a rough texture so the paint has something to adhere to. Reference the article to polish your rims on how sanding of the rims works. The only difference with this is how far you want to go. In my case, being winter rims painted I chose not to go through the process of stripping the paint on the rims completely. I simply sanded down the surface with 300 grit sandpaper ensuring to make everything sanded equally. This gives the rough surface required for the paint to adhere, and as long as your rims had no damage it should be good enough.

Your rims are sanded; you have your paint and now are ready. First, make sure you clean all sanding dust off the rims and ensure a totally clean surface so the paint will stick and not flake off after your first drive out with your newly painted rims!!! Here are my rims washed and ready to completely dry before painting:

My rims are masked off with newspaper and masking tape. Of course you want to do this so you dont turn your tires into the color you are painting. I don’t want gunmetal painted tires. Also if you look close enough, you will know that the lip has been masked off as well. So I carefully applied the masking tape on the lip to protect it from being painted as well. Also, you know the little thing you pump your air into, mask that off as well unless you want that to have a color change as well 🙂

The rims are dry, you have masked off what you dont want painted and now you are ready. Put some newspaper on the ground and place the rim on top of the newspaper. You don’t want to paint the concrete underneath the rim so keep it clean with the newspaper.

Now apply your first coat of paint. Let the paint dry well and next day admire your handiwork and results.

The Hardest Part of Any Auto Restoration Project

Classic car restoration is not only about restoring a vehicle, it’s about restoring the times of a bygone era. For hobbyists that restore these cars, it’s a labor of love.
Now, you’ve found the perfect classic car, perfect model – it just needs a little work. But, where to begin? The hardest part of any auto restoration project is determining the scope of the project. Without clear cut goals and budgets at the beginning, you can easily find yourself in an endless and ongoing relationship with your automobile. Your money will rapidly transfer itself to your car, your time will disappear, and your automobile will never be quite finished – because you’ll always find some other slight imperfection to work on and “fix”.
There is no one right way to go about restoring a car. But good restorers do have common traits that separate them from the ones that never seem to finish their restoration jobs.

1. The ability to set realistic goals – No matter how long you take or how much money you spend, you will never be able to restore a classic car exactly to it’s state when it was originally brought to the market. Body paints are produced differently now than in the past so while you can easily get a color match, you will never get an exact paint ingredient match. Likewise, the formulations of finishing materials such as varnishes, enamels, and so on are no longer the same. And the same is true for many of the other classic car components. So you, as the restorer, have to set realistic goals as to exactly what parts of the car you are going to restore to their original states and what parts of the car you are willing to restore “as close as possible” to their original states.

2. Patience – It may sound paradoxical, but without patience, your chance of finishing your auto restoration are slim. You need patience because a major restoration job is seldom without problems. You discover the fuel gauge is not working and you have to scrounge around for a replacement. Or, the electrical system is suddenly becoming erratic and you lose two weeks time resolving the problem. Without patience, you may well decide to just give up and abandon the project or leave it until another day that never comes.

3. Love of Research – A good restorer, by necessity, has to be a good researcher as well. A car restorer spends much of his time not actively working on the auto, but finding what replacement parts are needed for his classic car and locating them. There are times when you will find yourself literally doing research for an entire day. If you don’t love research – or at least like it a lot – you can be sure of many miserable days ahead.

4. Good manual skills – This goes without saying but unless you love working with your hands and have some skills to speak of, you might just as well take your checkbook out and pay someone to restore the car for you, because you’ll never get it done yourself.
It seems as though the hobby of restoring classic cars is having a resurgence but before you decide to take the leap yourself and outfit your garage with installation tools, make sure you have the traits that will let you succeed at your new hobby.

What The Car You Drive Says About You

At one time the car you drove said much more about you than being an illustration of your taste in automotive engineering. The car that you drove gave people an insight into the kind of life you were leading, what kind of job you had, and more importantly just how much money you were earning. The car has always been and will remain to be a status symbol of wealth and power, but these days, as far as the average man in the street is concerned it’s getting a lot harder to judge the lifestyle of the driver just by looking at the type of car that he drives.

One of the standard dinner party questions that were bandied about at social events was about the kind of car that you were currently driving. Not that the person was actually interested in the car itself, but the answer that was given revealed more about income and social standing than any background check ever could. No one likes to ask questions about money, that is still one social taboo that remains more or less intact, but indirect questions seem to be acceptable.
Social Hierarchy of the Car
Traditionally, if you said you were driving a German made car such as an Audi or a BMW you were considered to be doing well – money was flowing and your life was on the up. If you were driving an Italian made car or a vehicle made by a French manufacturer such as a Citroen or a Fiat, then you were considered to have high aspirations, but not the money to back them up. Those that drove a Ford were thought to be sensible as far as financial matters were concerned. If you admitted you were the owner and driver of a British made car then you were expected to hit rock bottom pretty soon, and for those who drove a car made in the Far East such as a Toyota or a Nissan, well you never said it out loud as to do so would be social suicide. All of this has now been turned on its head and the answer someone gives when you ask them about the car that the drive will tell you next to nothing about their financial stability or their social status.
Looks Can Be Deceiving
The Mercedes Benz that was once the epitome of luxury for the executive on the move is now just as likely to be seen doing the school run, driven by a mother of two. The brand names which once offered style, class and sophistication have had to broaden their range in order to remain a contender in today’s market. With cars ranging in price from £14,000 to £350,000 telling someone that you drive a Mercedes means next to nothing in terms of revealing your finances. Several years ago if you had admitted to driving a Volkswagen you would have been thought to have been hard up, and pictured behind the wheel of a battered old camper van whereas now VW have a range of vehicles to suit just about every pocket, no matter how shallow or deep they may be.

Tips for Fast Auto Repair at Home

Most of the time, people rely on a car mechanic to help them out with some issues they have with their vehicles. Because of this, they tend to forget that there are some things they can do at home to help them take care of their vehicle. If you want to make sure that your vehicle performs at its best performance at all times, you really have to do your part to maintain it.

Even if you’re not equipped with the knowledge on how to take care of your car, there are some basic maintenance steps that you can do to so you can keep your vehicle out of the shop. In doing this, you can ensure that your car will have a long life span and will not be a problem to you. At the same time, performing these maintenance steps can help ensure that you don’t spend too much money on having your car fixed. If you want to practice good car ownership, knowing these basic maintenance tips can be a big help. With these, you’ll be able to do some fast auto repair at home:

Regularly Change Your Fluids

As a car owner, you need to be acquainted with the different fluids included in your vehicle. This will be a big help to you so you know how you can properly change them. Since you will need to regularly change these fluids, it is best that you be familiar with what they are. The good thing is, oil changes are fast, easy and cheap. You can save a lot of money if you have your vehicle’s fluids changed regularly rather than leaving them on their own. Otherwise, it could be a costly ordeal for you.

Change Your Air Filter Yearly

Another thing you have to remember about your vehicle is that you need to replace the air filter every year. This is so your cabin air filter does not get clogged. If you choose to neglect replacing your air filter, you could load your car’s A/C system. And during winter, its heat gets reduced. Make sure to have this part of your vehicle replaced at least once a year.

Clean Your Car’s Headlights

Having dirty headlights on your car could be dangerous, especially if you are driving at night or in thick snow. This is why you should always remember to clean your car’s headlights using a specially designed kit. By cleaning your headlights, you won’t need to replace them right away. Who knows, all they need all the while was just a good cleaning?

Check Your Coolant

Basic car maintenance requires you to test your coolant using a voltmeter. You can do this by setting the digital voltmeter on its lowest DC setting reading and dip its positive probe into the coolant. The negative probe should touch the negative battery terminal before you rev your engine to 2000 rpm. Once the reading depicts that it is 4 volts or more, your coolant has already fired up and you need to replace it.

Be Familiar With Your Coolant Type

Most of the time, people make mistakes with the coolant type their car uses. This is because there are so many different types of coolants in the market– green, red, yellow, blue, and orange. When you’re out looking for a new coolant, make sure that you get the right type of coolant that your car is using. When mixed together, coolants create a mud-like appearance. And even if you opt for the cheapest coolant that does not fit your car’s requirement, this could be costly. A new heater core could cost anywhere from $400 to $1,000.

Changing Your Coolant

One of the most important things you should remember about owning a car is that you have to change your coolant on schedule. This is because it is necessary for you to keep the coolant maintained. Since coolant does not last forever, it is important that you change it every 24,000 miles for the green coolant and 100,000 miles for the extended-life coolant. If you choose to ignore your coolant, you could be in for some trouble. Driving with a worn coolant can lead to you replacing the water pump, heater core, or even the radiator.

Clean Your Battery Terminals Especially Corroded Ones

Encountering an electrical problem in your car can be a big dilemma. One quick solution to this is to make sure that your battery terminals are free from any corrosion. This is because when your battery terminals are corroded, they could strain your charging system. In turn, this leads to messing your computer-controlled systems. The cheapest insurance you get from electrical problems is to always clean them.

Repair Your Defroster

If your defroster grid has become out of action, you can easily take care of it by picking up a repair kit. Many auto parts stores sell this repair kit and you can easily follow its instructions to defrost it in no time.

Remember that as a car owner, the best way you can prevent a big problem from your car is to have it maintained regularly. Follow these tips so you can be a responsible car owner today!

Written by the staff at KB Tire & Auto. KB Tire & Auto is the leading expert in auto repair Moberly MO has to offer.

Romer Impacts Automotive Industry

Several companies benefit from various Romer products including those involved in the manufacture of furniture, sheet metal and molded plastics, as well as those engaged in shipbuilding, product designs, heavy equipment and even aerospace among others.

Romer continues to have an impact in all of these industries especially the automotive industry which is regularly reliant on reverse engineering, 3D scanning and products development. This is an industry that keeps its competitiveness by coming out with innovative products that pass rigorous quality control.

And when one speaks of quality control, one can only think of flexible quality control and inspection tools like the portable arm coordinating measuring machines from Romer.

Romer is a corporation with company headquarters located in Michigan’s Hexagon Metrology Precision Center. It is known for manufacturing dependable and innovative products that respond to the necessities of general engineering industries, particularly the heavy equipment and automotive industries.

The automotive industry has become so competitive that companies require to produce highly innovative products in a short period of time. Otherwise, it gets left behind by other companies that can easily come up with shorter production runs.

Companies producing cars have learned from experience that there is a way to enhance their productivity and their product quality. With Romer’s products, automotive companies can decrease ramp up times and reduce part rejections, thus improving production efficiency and decreasing losses.
Romer for Motor Sports
The automotive industry is far-reaching but one of the most visible and popular sectors is motor sport. This sector considers Dekra, which is the German Touring Car Masters’ official technical partner, one of the leading expert organizations around the world.

With around 22,000 employees and active involvement in over 50 countries worldwide, Dekra relies on Romer’s measuring arm to ensure quality and long-term safety in the field of motor sport. One very significant Romer instrument in the racetrack is the portable Romer CMM.

Racing fans watching the DTM racing weekends will usually find Volker Noeske and Wolfgang Dammert of the Dekra Team in the circuits, to make sure that everything is according to regulations, including the weight of every vehicle and driver. They are of course armed with the Romer Infinite 2.0 measuring arm for the dimensional checks.

With the low weight of the Romer arm, it has become very handy and portable equipment for the race. It is thus not surprising that since the 2010 season, it has been used at every DTM race the world over.
Romer for Heavy Machinery
Romer’s measuring arms are also an important part in Ausa’s operations, which is very significant considering that it is the biggest manufacturer of all-terrain forklifts, dumpers and concrete mixers in the world.

Ausa is a multinational company with a 64,000 square meter headquarters and production plant in Barcelona, and with subsidiaries in Florida, China, Germany, United Kingdom, France and Madrid. Ausa has a wide reach as its products are marketed by 225 distributors in more than 70 countries.
The company has enhanced its production and is relying on Romer’s measuring arm to make its production line more efficient.

Romer’s measuring arms and other products are indeed heaven-sent for the automobile industry, especially for companies that want to maintain its competitiveness the world over.

Choose Your Tesda Accredited School

The TESDA (Technical Education and Skills Development Authority) is a leading organization which provides the development of skills for young people in Philippines. All the students who complete a course in the skill they specialize, can apply for scholarship in TESDA Accredited School. Thus, they can continue their studying in the schools which are under the jurisdiction of TESDA. The latter have been authorised and accredited by the TESDA and offer a great variety of courses of the following specialties: Welding, Dressmaking, Hairdressing, Beauty Care, Baking/Pastry Production, Commercial Cooking, Carpentry, Plumbing, Masonry, Building Wiring Installation, Computer Hardware Servicing, Consumer Electronics Servicing, Automotive Servicing, Motorcycle Small Engine Servicing.
But the student should meet one important requirement in order to enter Tesda Accredited School – he or she must insure whether a school or institution has been accredited by TESDA.
Here is a list of several schools which have been accredited by TESDA. You need just to decide which specialty you like and make your choice of the school providing the development of skills you are going to deal with.
ArkiCADD Centre for Computer Education: This school started its activity as a training centre in the year of 1991 at the UP College of Architecture in Diliman, Quezon City. Originally the school was designed to develop the skills in oil and mineral exploration as it was fully owned by the company called Computer Synergy Inc. Later the school was transformed from a training center to a technical school which nowadays specializes in the field of computer science. It provides two-year courses accredited with the Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA). These courses are offered only to students who have graduated from a high school with a set level of aptitude for the arts. Thus, ArkiCADD combines computer education with artistic technique.
Call Haven Centre for I.T. Education in the Asia Pacific is another TESDA Accredited school in Philippines. This centre is intended for providing free education to its students in the field of the IT industry, for instance, outsourcing. It prepares students for employment in this area.
De Mazenod School of Technology: this TESDA accredited school is involved in the development of the skills of computer hardware servicing, automotive service, automobile servicing and Personal Computer (PC) operation.
Dualtech Training Centre is a private school which was established in 1982. This centre explored the adapting of the German Dual Training System in the Philippines. During 28 years of its existence it has provided thousands of able workers to the industries. Those scholar-trainees were taken from the poor sectors of society from the marginalized communities.
Focolare Carpentry Training Centre was founded in 1968 as a school which transforms school youth into really professional carpenters. In this way the centre trains local managerial personnel I the field of carpentry and encourages the young people for self supporting manufacturing handicrafts. By the way, the Focolare Carpentry Training Center was initially the project of the Work of Mary or Focolare Movement for Men, Inc. The latter is a world-wide known non-profit religious structure meant to give educational opportunities for out of school young people.
PATTS College of Aeronautics is the one designed to develop skills in the area of aviation. It offers the most professional technical training in the given field. Due to the qualified personnel of the college students study good airworthy aircraft and practice their skills under their direct supervision.
Southern Mindanao Institute of Technology is a private technical school which provides the pre-school, the high school and additional baccalaureate courses. During several last years this institution has broadened the scope of its specialties as well as updated its training facilities. Being the first ever technical school in Tacurong and in the whole province of Sultan Kudarat, it is able to equip its youth and the youth of neighbouring areas for a successful life in new generation.

Classic Car Restoration Services: Understanding Classic Car Paint

Getting a new paint job can be one of the most beneficial classic car restoration services. Classic car restoration services can use new paint to make your restoration look vibrant, colorful, and as good as new. However, there are several options to consider when you want to touch up or completely restore your vintage car’s paint job. Here are some of the things you need to think about before buying paint, primer, or even full paint jobs from classic car restoration services.
Restoration or Repainting?
Repainting an entire car – classic or modern – can be costly. Thankfully, it is sometimes possible to salvage the paint job on your classic car and retain the original color.

When old cars sit out for years in junk yards or spend decades without proper maintenance, their outer layers of paint can easily corrode. Ultraviolet rays, dust, salt, and acidic rain can wreak havoc on paint jobs. If your car has large patches of rust or corrosion, it will probably need several new coatings of primer, paint, and gloss.

If there are just a few blemishes, however, you can see dramatic improvements by simply removing the outer layer of paint. As long as the original paint job was several layers thick, stripping away the damaged layer can reveal deep, vibrant color.
Buying Paint
It can sometimes be difficult to find the right paint for your car. Older automobiles were often sold in colors that are no longer popular, so hobbyists who want to reproduce an authentic look will need to search for specialty paints. Classic car restoration services often carry vintage colors and offer options for mixing paints to achieve a specific appearance.
Prepping for a New Paint Job
If you’re going to repaint your car yourself, you need to put a great deal of time and effort into the prep work. Begin by using a power-sander to thoroughly smooth your car’s body and remove blemishes. This is a time-consuming process, but it is absolutely crucial for a quality paint job.

Once your car is smooth, thoroughly wash and dry it, using an air compressor to remove excess moisture, dirt, and particles left over from the sanding process. Finish the prep job by taping and covering every surface you don’t want painted.
Classic Car Paint
You first need to choose the most optimal environment possible for completing your paint job. Indoors is ideal, and perfect weather is a must if you’re going to paint outside. Dirt and insects can easily make their way onto your primer and paint once applied, leaving unsightly marks.

Before you apply any color, you’ll need to put on two coats of primer. Once your primer is dry, remove most of it by yet again sanding your car. This will leave a smooth, paint-friendly surface and fill in any gaps in car body.

When you’re ready to paint, you’ll need to either apply several thick coats, or use one coat followed by a protective gloss. In either case, you must constantly make sure the prior coats of paint or primer are completely dry and free of blemishes before you continue with the next.

How to Find Helpful Car Repair Videos on the Net

For many of us the biggest problem we experience while doing a repair is the small hangups that prevent us from progressing any further. It is the fact that we don’t have someone to just simply walk us through the steps of the repair while offering the kinds of tips that only hands on experience can provide. Sure, most anybody can go to an automotive repair outlet and find a repair manual for their car, but it lacks so much that is lost when compared to being able to watch a video of the same repair being performed. This is doubly helpful if the installer “talks you through” the removal and installation of the new car part, as he will likely offer helpful tips along the way that a book may not provide.
But, for many users on the internet, it may be difficult to find a reliable source for repair videos. And even if you are familiar with such sites as youtube (which would be my primary recommendation) it can be a daunting task sometimes to find exactly the type of videos that address the repair that you are attempting. So if you follow this simple search formula for Google, you can be assured to find highly relevant and useful videos relating to your repair. The formula is this: “year+make+model+repair job+youtube”.
For instance, if I were curious to find a video about replacing a tail light for a 2009 Chevy Impala, I would use the following search string entered into Google: “2009+Chevy+Impala+tail light replacement+youtube” because I know it will successfully yield me results that are right on target and helpful to me during my repair. I will likely be offered a choice of videos from different sources, so even if I find the information on one to be inadequate, I can still choose another to look at to give me the information that I need. Say I needed to find an install video about a 2007 Honda Accord door handle? Well just go to Google again and enter “2007+Honda+Accord+door handle” and you will find a number of helpful videos to walk you through this tricky repair.
Making your car as good as new is our passion at Go-Part. We have dedicated ourselves to the sale of quality aftermarket car repair parts, offering replacements that are every bit as good as the original part at a fraction of the cost. All of our parts are ASE and CAPA certified, and we stand behind all of them with a money back guarantee. Next time you need a replacement part for your car, be sure to visit us at or give us a call at 1-877-321-PART.

How to Make Your Automobile Club Flyer Distribution Successful?

Sometimes you might not have a big budget to market your product or your business. However, it is very important to give your automobile business the opportunity to expand especially if it is a new one. The conventional print marketing tool like a club flyer is the best way to market your product. When the distribution of the flyers is implemented properly, it turns out to be one of the best methods of reaching out to the customers. This is also the most cost-effective method of marketing your business. Moreover, they are so cheap that they provide you ample opportunity to be creative.

Most of the time flyers are put on the telephone poles and bulletin boards. Nonetheless, there are some unique places where you can distribute the flyers where it will get more attention. Some such places have been mentioned below.


Each and every month, you send some specific amount of mails and bills. Every time you are sending out these mails make sure you are placing a flyer inside the envelope. You never know the total number of people who will open the envelope. Also, make sure that you provide the URL and other important information about the company over the envelope. So, that people who come across the envelope notices the details.

Strategically Placed Handbills

Do not leave the flyer just about anywhere. Think and consider where your flyer would receive the maximum of attention from the customers. Like, subway seats can be good place for distributing the flyers. You have to be creative to grab the attention of the people and thereby motivate them to read the leaflet that you have left behind.


Bookmarks are an excellent way of distributing a flyer. When one is reading a book, they would definitely be in need of a flyer. Each and every time they open the book to read, they will notice the information on the flyer. Discuss the idea with a bookstore or a librarian. You can also talk to them about placing the flyer on the counter or the bookshelves.


When people go to do their laundry, they wait there for a considerable amount of time. Thus, they have time to read the flyer while doing their laundry. Sometimes, a Laundromat has a bulletin board and that is an ideal place for posting a flyer. You can use tabbed flyer, so that people are able to tear off the tab that contain your contact details.

Pay Phones

Mobile phone might have become popular but there are still several payphones out there. Sometime people make use of pay phones to have some privacy. Therefore, the person who is using it will stay there for some time and this gives them sufficient amount of time to read a flyer that is on display. You can talk to the store owners near the pay phone and place your Printing VIP flyers in the store too.

However, you need to make sure that the flyers that you are distributing are not to clumsy and cheaply designed.

A TO Z about Automobile Transmission

The history of automatic transmissions can be dated long back. Every car enthusiast is aware of the subtle difference between manual and automatic transmissions. The question of whether the manual or the automatic transmissions are better is a hot topic of debate. Once there was a time when the automatic transmissions were only meant for the handicapped. Now it has become a status symbol. The interesting fact is that, for a person who wants to just enjoy driving around, these terms can mean nothing. There are surely some technical differences between manual and automatic transmissions. Automatic transmissions mean more freedom for the person who drives such a vehicle. He can limit the use of his limbs to just two pedals apart from the steering wheel. Manual transmission allows you to have an over all control over your vehicle. It is better than automatic transmissions when it comes to maneuvering the vehicle through tough terrain. The automatic transmissions need much more fuel than the manual transmission and they are costly too. In the case of maintenance too they remain on the costly side.
The maintenance part about automatic transmissions has some more details to be looked into. To get it repaired perfectly you will surely need an A+ transmission specialist. But the problem is how to find one. There are a lot of automobile transmission repair centers around, but some of them are manual transmission repair centers and some are just robbing your pockets. Even though you are ready to spend any amount on automatic transmission repair, in some of the repair shops the service won’t be up to the mark and refined. They will be charging you thousands when the same work can be done by spending just hundreds. So it is better to spend some time and search out an honest and experienced A+ transmission specialist for your automobile transmission repairs.
Automatic transmissions are the most expensive part of the vehicle. So if it has some sort of trouble most of the owners won’t be going for a fresh one. They will opt to have a rebuilt transmission. In fact rebuilt transmissions are readily available in the market. What you have to do is just to look out for the providers who are having the best goodwill among them. Even an A+ transmission specialist has no negative opinion about having a rebuilt transmission. The automatic transmissions repair centers can give a clear idea about the places where you can find the best rebuilt transmissions if they don’t have such a facility. There are service providers online who does business of rebuilt transmissions online and thus adopting such a way will also be beneficial. Whatever be the way you take up to get the automobile transmissions of your vehicle done, the main thing to keep in mind is that of the quality of service you receive in return for the money you give. So look for automobile transmission repair shops around you which are having competitive pricing. This can surely save you precious time and bucks.

Transmission Repair – Some Curious Thoughts

Automobile transmission repair is a very costly affair whether it is an automatic transmissions or manual transmissions repair. For the same reason you should take special care in finding out a perfect automobile transmission repair center for your vehicle. There are some tips to cut you expense on such repairs. One way is to directly approach the automobile transmission repair shop, which can avoid the additional expense by way of cost of door to door service. Another way is to look for centers which offer competitive pricing. Through this you can be aware of the different rates for automobile transmission repairs existing in the market and to select the centre where you can have your work done without any extra cost.
The important thing to look for is the quality of service and the presence of an A+ transmission specialist in the working crew. This can make your automatic transmissions work more refined. You have to communicate with the A+ transmission specialist about the problem you have encountered in your vehicle. This could help in making diagnose of the transmission trouble easy. If you are entrusting the automobile transmission repair work with an A+ transmission specialist, it can save you money as well as time.
The internet will make the things simple for you. You can easily find an automobile transmission repair center, an A+ transmission specialist or even a rebuilt transmission online. There are even specific service providers for this in the internet. But before the selection you have to make sure that the in formations given in the net is correct. You have to convince yourself completely about the company as well as the parts about its quality. You will have to verify the methods that the company adopts for the repairs whether it is an automatic transmissions or manual transmission repair.
Make sure that they are making use of the most modern technologies and techniques. This can up to a certain extend ensure you the highest possible quality in the work. If you are opting for a rebuilt transmission then, you have to make sure that the rebuilt transmission has been checked in real conditions to ascertain its performance. Many of the companies offer guarantee for the work they have undertaken. Look for such facilities as it can provide an added confidence for you. In case of rebuilt transmission for your automatic transmissions vehicle, the quality as well as the suppliers’ reliability is very significant.
If there is anything wrong with the automatic transmissions of your vehicle, there is no need to panic now. There are many options of an automobile transmission repair shops very near to you. You just intimate them and in a matter of no time and they will be at your door steps to help you out. But even before that, you can, all by yourself, make a test of your car’s transmission problem and thus to evaluate whether it needs the service of an A+ transmission specialist. This type of a self evaluation is necessary as some of the problems can be solved by the user himself.

Mahindra XUV500 SUV – Autoportal on the new age SUV in India

Launched in the year 2011, XUV500 is a mid-sized SUV produced by the Indian automaker Mahindra, which is rather well-known for making such rugged cars.

First of its kind

The XUV500 was special for the company as well as the car market as it had many new elements. It was the first SUV to be built on a monocoque chassis, where the body and frame together is one single piece. This makes it more car-like and also lighter in weight which helps in increased performance and fuel efficiency. XUV500 came packed with features that were until then found in vehicles only in the 20 lakhs plus range. It was also the first vehicle from the M&M stable to be released on an international platform.

Market Response and Sales

XUV500 received an overwhelming response at the launch and within seven days, it received more than 5000 bookings. Within one year, Mahindra had sold out 35000 units of the car and even had to increase its monthly production. And in less than 3 years of its launch, the sales crossed the milestone of one lakhs units. With this, the XUV500 became the fastest SUV priced in the range of Rs 10 to 15 lakhs to have achieved this feat.


About the car

The overall styling resembles a cheetah, which is the fastest land animal.The general design is not that boxy, nevertheless it commands great road presence.7 or more people can fit in easily in the XUV500. Apart from the traditional 2 rows of seats, there is a foldable pair of seats at the rear. One can use this row for sitting people or else as a boot area. Mahindra XUV500 is equipped with a 2179cc mHawk type engine which produces a maximum power of 140 bhp with a torque of 330 Nm. It yields a mileage of 12 kmpl in the city and 14 kmpl on highways.

Face-lifts and up-gradations

The car got a minor face-lift in the year 2013 which tackled certain quality issues related to suspension and braking. Following the intense competition in this segment, Mahindra has now thoroughly updated the XUV500 and the new 2015 model was launched on 25th May 2015. The company offers the new model with 31 new features in addition to many cosmetic and mechanical updates at a slightly higher price range of Rs 11.21 to 15.99 lakhs. There is also a new top-of-the-line variant available now.

Future prospects

It is heard that the XUV500 will sooncome in an all-new petrol engine with a 6-speed automatic transmission. Another exciting offer is Mahindra XUV500 Hybrid, which is already showcased at the 2014 Auto Expo and is expected to be in the market anytime now.

Also check Maruti Suzuki Celerio and popular bikes in India

When does a car battery need to be replaced or time for a new battery ?

The battery is what powers every electrical component in a car. At some point, the car battery needs to be replaced, but when? Is there a way to tell that the battery is failing? How long does it last? Let’s start with why the battery needs to be replaced. Most cars have lead-acid batteries that are made of six cells with lead and lead-oxide plates filled with an electrolyte (dilute sulfuric acid).

  • 01

Slow engine crank:
When you attempt to start the vehicle, the cranking of the engine is sluggish and takes longer than normal to start.

  • 02

Check engine light:
The check engine light sometimes appears when your battery power is weak.

  • 03

Low battery fluid level:
Car batteries typically have a part of the casing that’s translucent so you can always keep an eye on your battery’s fluid level. If the fluid level is below the lead plates : (energy conductor:) inside, it’s time to have the battery and charging system tested.

  • 04

The swelling, bloating battery case:
If your battery casing looks like this you can blame excessive heat for causing your battery case to swell, decreasing your battery life.

  • 05

Battery leak:
Leaking also causes the corrosion around the posts : (where the + and – cable connections are located.: ) The gunk may need to be removed; otherwise, your car may not start.

  • 06

Old age:
Your battery can last well beyond three years but, at the very least, have its current condition inspected on a yearly basis when it reaches the three year mark.


Charging Lead Acid

Learn how to optimize charging conditions to extend service life.

Lead acid uses a voltage-based charge algorithm that shares similarity with lithium-ion. The voltage is allowed to roam within a confined window while the charge current is set and will only moderate during saturation charge. The charge time of a sealed lead acid battery is 12–16 hours, up to 36–48 hours for large stationary batteries. With higher charge currents and multi-stage charge methods, the charge time can be reduced to 10 hours or less; however, the topping charge may not be complete. Lead acid is sluggish and cannot be charged as quickly as other battery systems.

Lead acid batteries should be charged in three stages, which are [1] constant-current charge, [2] topping charge and [3] float charge. The constant-current charge applies the bulk of the charge and takes up roughly half of the required charge time; the topping charge continues at a lower charge current and provides saturation, and the float charge compensates for the loss caused by self-discharge. Figure 1 illustrates these three stages.

Charge stages of a lead acid battery

Figure 1: Charge stages of a lead acid battery
The battery is fully charged when the current drops to a pre-determined level or levels out in stage 2. The float voltage must be reduced at full charge.

Courtesy of Cadex

During the constant-current charge, the battery charges to about 70 percent in 5–8 hours; the remaining 30 percent is filled with the slower topping charge that lasts another 7–10 hours. The topping charge is essential for the well-being of the battery and can be compared to a little rest after a good meal. If continually deprived, the battery will eventually lose the ability to accept a full charge and the performance will decrease due to sulfation. The float charge in the third stage maintains the battery at full charge.

The switch from Stage 1 to 2 occurs seamlessly and happens when the battery reaches the set voltage limit. The current begins to drop as the battery starts to saturate, and full charge is reached when the current decreases to the three percent level of the rated current. A battery with high leakage may never attain this low saturation current, and a plateau timer takes over to initialize the charge termination.

The correct setting of the charge voltage is critical and ranges from 2.30 to 2.45V per cell. Setting the voltage threshold is a compromise, and battery experts refer to this as “dancing on the head of a needle.” On one hand, the battery wants to be fully charged to get maximum capacity and avoid sulfation on the negative plate; on the other hand, an over-saturated condition causes grid corrosion on the positive plate and induces gassing.

To make “dancing on the head of a needle” more difficult, the battery voltage shifts with temperature. Warmer surroundings require slightly lower voltage thresholds and a cold ambient prefers a higher level. Chargers exposed to temperature fluctuations should include temperature sensors to adjust the charge voltage for optimum charge efficiency. If this is not possible, it is better to choose a lower voltage for safety reasons. Table 2 compares the advantages and limitations of various peak voltage settings.


2.30V to 2.35V/cell

2.40V to 2.45V/cell


Maximum service life; battery stays cool; charge temperature can exceed 30°C (86°F). Higher and more consistent capacity readings; less sulfation.


Slow charge time; capacity readings may be inconsistent and declining with each cycle. Sulfation may occur without equalizing charge. Subject to corrosion and gassing. Needs constant water. Not suitable for charging at high room temperatures, causing severe overcharge.

Table 2: Effects of charge voltage on a small lead acid battery
Cylindrical lead acid cells have higher voltage settings than VRLA and starter batteries.
Once fully charged through saturation, the battery should not dwell at the topping voltage for more than 48 hours and must be reduced to the float voltage level. This is especially critical for sealed systems because these systems are less able to tolerate overcharge than the flooded type. Charging beyond what the battery can take turns the redundant energy into heat and the battery begins to gas. The recommended float voltage of most low-pressure lead acid batteries is 2.25 to 2.27V/cell. (Large stationary batteries float at 2.25V at 25°C (77°F.) Manufacturers recommend lowering the float charge at ambient temperatures above 29°C (85°F).
Not all chargers feature float charge and very few road vehicles will have this provision. If your charger stays on topping charge and does not drop below 2.30V/cell, remove the charge after 48 hours of charge. Recharge every six month if the battery remains in storage.

Whereas the voltage settings in Table 2 apply to low-pressure lead acid batteries with a pressure relief valve of about 34kPa (5psi), cylindrical sealed lead acid, such as the Hawker Cyclon cell, requires higher voltage settings and the limits should be set according to the manufacturer’s specifications. Failing to apply the recommended voltage will cause a gradual decrease in capacity due to sulfation. The Hawker Cyclon cell has a pressure relief setting of 345kPa (50psi). This allows some recombination of the gases generated during charge.

Aging batteries pose a challenge when setting the optimal float charge voltage because each cell has its own age-related condition. Weak cells may go into hydrogen evolution as part of overcharge early on, while the stronger ones undergo oxygen recombination in an almost starved state. Connected in a string, all cells receive the same charge current and controlling individual cell voltages is almost impossible. A float current that is too high for the faded cell might starve the strong neighbor and cause sulfation due to undercharge. Companies have developed cell-balancing devices, which are placed on the battery and compensate the differences in cell voltages that occur as a result of cell imbalance.

Ripple voltage imposed on the voltage of large stationary batteries also causes a problem. The voltage peak constitutes an overcharge, causing hydrogen evolution, while the valleys induce a brief discharge that creates a starved state that results in electrolyte depletion. Manufacturers typically limit the ripple to five percent.

Much has been said about pulse charging of lead acid batteries. There are apparent advantages in reducing sulfation; however, the results are inconclusive and manufacturers as well as service technicians are divided on the benefit. If sulfation could be measured with accuracy and the right amount of pulses applied as a corrective service, then the remedy could be beneficial. Giving an abrasive cure without knowing the underlying results can be harmful.

Most stationary batteries are kept on float charge. The so-called hysteresis charge disconnects the float current when the battery is full and on standby. The battery is essentially put in storage and is only “borrowed” from time to time to apply a toping-charge to replenish lost energy due to self-discharge, or when a load is applied. This mode works well for installations that do not draw a load when on standby.

Lead acid batteries must always be stored in a charged state. A topping charge should be applied every six months to prevent the voltage from dropping below 2.10V/cell. With AGM, these requirements can be somewhat relaxed.

Measuring the open circuit voltage (OCV) while in storage provides a reliable indication as to the state-of-charge of the battery. A voltage of 2.10V at room temperature reveals a charge of about 90 percent. Such a battery is in good condition and needs only a brief full charge prior to use. If the voltage drops below 2.10V, the battery must be charged to prevent sulfation. Observe the storage temperature when measuring the open circuit voltage. A cool battery lowers the voltage slightly and a warm one increases it. Using OCV to estimate state-of-charge works best when the battery has rested for a few hours, because a charge or discharge agitates the battery and distorts the voltage.

Some buyers do not accept shipments of new batteries if the OCV at incoming inspection is below 2.10V per cell. A low voltage suggests partial charge due to long storage or a high self-discharge induced by a possible micro-short. Battery users have indeed found that a pack arriving at a lower than specified voltage has a higher failure rate than those with higher voltages. Although in-house service can often bring such batteries to full performance, the time and equipment required adds to operational costs. (Please note that the 2.10V/cell acceptance threshold does not apply to all lead acid types.)


Watering is the single most important step in maintaining a flooded lead acid battery, a requirement that is all to often neglected. The frequency of watering depends on usage, charge method and operating temperature. A new battery should be checked every few weeks to determine the watering requirement. This assures that the top of the plates is never exposed. A naked plate will sustain irreversible damage through oxidation, leading to reduced capacity and lower performance.

If low on electrolyte, immediately fill the battery with distilled or de-ionized. Do not fill to the correct level before charging as this could cause an overflow during charging. Always top up to the desired level after charging. Never add electrolyte as this would upsets the specific gravity and promote corrosion. Watering systems eliminate low electrolyte levels by automatically adding the right amount of water.

Simple Guidelines for Charging Lead Acid Batteries

  • Charge in a well-ventilated area. Hydrogen gas generated during charging is explosive. (See BU-703: Health Concerns with Batteries)
  • Choose the appropriate charge program for flooded, gel and AGM batteries. Check manufacturer’s specifications on recommended voltage thresholds.
  • Charge lead acid batteries after each use to prevent sulfation. Do not store on low charge.
  • The plates of flooded batteries must always be fully submerged in electrolyte. Fill battery with distilled or de-ionized water to cover the plates if low. Tap water may be acceptable in some regions. Never add electrolyte.
  • Fill water level to designated level after charging. Overfilling when the battery is empty can cause acid spillage.
  • Formation of gas bubbles in a flooded lead acid indicates that the battery is reaching full state-of-charge (hydrogen on negative plate and oxygen on positive plate).
  • Reduce float charge if the ambient temperature is higher than 29°C (85°F).
  • Do not allow a lead acid to freeze. An empty battery freezes sooner than one that is fully charged. Never charge a frozen battery.
  • Do not charge at temperatures above 49°C (120°F).

How to get the cheapest car insurance

The major crime most drivers commit against their personal finances is failing to shop around for the best premium and simply accepting your insurer’s renewal quote, which is likely to be much higher.

Younger drivers can also grab themselves potentially much cheaper car insurance by opting for one of the new blackbox policies, these put a spy in your car to monitor your driving and reward those who are careful and don’t drive at dangerous times.

Laura Keely, right, opted to have a little black box put in under the dashboard of her Vauxhall Corsa by Insurethebox.

Previously, she paid £1,800 for a comprehensive policy. Twelve months on, her premiums dropped to just £1,000 — a 44 per cent fall.

Whether you are male or female, old or young, follow our ten steps to lower premiums.

1. Shop around for the best deals

Savings of hundreds of pounds can be found if you shop around when you renew your cover.

Be careful though. When shopping around for car insurance, it’s important to make sure that you are comparing like-for-like cover. Some policies may seem cheaper, but you may find you don’t have the same level of cover when you have to make a claim.

Use an online comparison service to do the hard work for you. Put in your details and check the prices that come up. You can alter the excess that you are willing to pay and the mileage you will drive and get new quotes. Also check the insurers that don’t feature in comparison sites, the big two are Direct Line and Aviva


  •   Compare policies from more than 130 insurers with our car insurance finder (Powered by leading comparison engine MoneySupermarket)

M&S Bank will cut up to 20 per cent off loyalty cardholder’s car insurance premiums plus it promises 1,000 M&S points to cardholders taking out a new policy. Its also offers up to 90 days cover while driving abroad and uninsured driver protection.

Churchill offers a 24-hour emergency and legal advice line, an uninsured drivers promise and a five year servicing deal. Experienced, safe drivers could also get an 80 per cent discount for cover of eight years or more.

Tempcover insurance could be a good option if you are after cover for a short period of time and Marmalade have a decent offering exclusively structured for young drivers.

Sainsbury’s offers new customers with a Nectar loyalty card up to 30 per cent discount on their insurance plus they get double points when swiping their loyalty cards on shopping and fuel with the supermarket for up to 2 years. The supermarket giant is also Plus giving free breakdown cover for the first year on its Sainsbury’s Car Insurance or Sainsbury’s Premier Cover Car Insurance until 28th September 2015.

John Lewis offers a 15 per cent discount when you apply for motor insurance online. Its policies come with a no claims discount of up to 75 per cent.

The AA offers free breakdown cover for the first year with any new car insurance policy.

2. Don’t put everyone on your policy

Ensure that only regular drivers are named on the policy. You can always add someone for a few days when they really need to drive the car.

3. Protect that no-claims bonus

A long no-claims bonus is the single best way of cutting car insurance costs, so protect it.

This may increase the premium by a few pounds, but this fades into insignificance against the potential loss of a 90 per cent discount on a premium of several hundred pounds.

 But the definition of a protected no-claims bonus can vary widely between insurers.

Though accidents caused by another driver will normally have no impact on such a bonus, those caused by the insured could. The key is to always check the policy carefully.

4. Take a higher excess

Increase your voluntary excess. Agreeing to pay more towards the cost of any accident repairs will bring down premiums. If you are not at fault in an accident, the excess can be recovered.Beware being tempted to allow it to rise too high, however, especially if you have a lower value car.

5. Secure your car

Fitting an approved alarm, immobiliser or tracking device can attract a discount of around 5%. Many newer cars will come with these as standard, so make sure you check if you have them and then declare them.


1. Compare prices: Use an online comparison service to do the hard work for you.

Put in your details and check the prices that come up. You can alter the excess that you are willing to pay and the mileage you will drive and get new quotes.

Also check the insurers that don’t feature in comparison sites, the big two are Direct Line and Aviva. This is Money’s car insurance search is powered by MoneySupermarket and will search more than 130 insurers for you. Try it out here.

2. Haggle! The car insurance market is notoriously competitive. Once you’ve been on This Is Money’s comparison and found your cheapest price (below), get on the phone and start bargaining!

3. Avoid paying monthly charges: Direct debit installments generally come hand-in-hand with high interest rates.

An alternative is to borrow the money on a 0 per cent purchase credit card and then clear it within a year. [Check the best 0% purchase credit cards here]

4. Think outside the box: An accelerated no-claims bonus, such as Admiral’s Bonus Accelerator, could give you a year’s no claims bonus after just 10 months.

5. Named drivers and friends and family: If you have previously been insured as an additional driver on another policy, see if you can transfer a no claims bonus to your own insurance coverage.

Some insurers do this, including The AA and Direct Line  . Try for a discount by insuring two or more vehicles between friends or family members with the same firm.

6. Do less miles

The fewer miles the car covers, the greater the saving.

For example, a reduction in annual mileage of 5,000 miles could save a typical 35-year-old driver about £50 a year in premiums.

A cut of 10,000 miles a year could save more than £100.

But you must be honest about your annual mileage, as inaccuracy will jeopardise any claim.

Check your use cover – if you don’t use your car to drive to work or for business – both things that increase your premium – you may be able to get a cheaper rate.

7. Think carefully about adding young drivers

Adding a young, inexperienced driver to your policy can be a false economy, especially if you have a large or higher powered vehicle.

The premium will still be affected by the youngest driver and he or she may not have a no-claims bonus. Insurers have also been cracking down on fronting, where parents insure cars in their name for children to cut costs, so make sure if you are the policyholder on a car driven by your children that you are actually its main driver, or that you declare otherwise.

8. Watch out for insurance trap cars


The EU has ruled that finance companies can no longer consider your gender when deciding what to charge you.

This was triggered by a European Court of Justice ruling on a challenge by a Belgian consumer group. Its case was that the exemption for insurers contradicted the principle of gender equality.

The ban came into force on 21 December 2012, after fierce campaign for UK firms which argued that they were not discriminating between the sexes — but instead were basing their prices on statistics.

Their argument was that as women live longer they pay less for life insurance, and get cheaper car cover because they have fewer accidents. The move to so-called gender-neutral pricing will affect premiums for all types of insurance — including car, life, private medical and income cover.

If you decide to change your car, check with your insurer if the model will have a significant effect on the premium.

Sporty cars can attract a high premium and often a slightly different model or smaller engine can make a big difference in your favour.

It will also probably save you on petrol too!

9. Remember what the garage is for

If your garage is full of junk, clear it out and use it for your car.

Insurers like cars kept in garages overnight and this can dramatically cut your premium.

Aside from the benefit of not having to scrape the ice off in winter, there is a higher risk of theft by keeping the car on the road, so keeping it in the garage will be reflected in your premium.

10. Be a better driver and sign up to a blackbox

Blackbox policies, where the insurer instals a system in your car to monitor your driving, reward those who drive carefully.

Officially called telematics, these check your speed, your handling and how cautiously you drive, and also whether you are on the road at perceived dangerous times – ie the early hours of the morning.

They can cut premiums substantially once you start proving you are a good driver. The biggest win is for those whose premiums are high, especially young drivers.

8 tips for negotiating a car trade-in

You’ve decided on a car trade-in. Although you realize selling your car yourself will net you the best deal, the one-stop shopping convenience of buying a new car and trading in the old at the dealership appeals to you.

The trouble is, dealers have experience on their side, and extracting the best deal takes research, savvy and a bold approach. Below are the eight best ways to navigate a car trade-in:

1. Research the value. There are numerous Web sites where this information is available, including, says Philip Reed, senior consumer advice editor at in Santa Monica, Calif. You also can visit Kelley Blue Book, AutoTrader, and the National Automobile Dealers Association, or check for similar cars being auctioned on eBay. If you have a CarMax store nearby, take your car there for a free appraisal.

Karla Emerson, an auto deal negotiator in Washington state, suggests taking your car to three or four used car lots currently selling vehicles similar to yours and see what they will give you for the car.

After you’ve checked these resources, you’ll be armed with the high-end and low-end sale values for your car. When the dealer asks what you want for your car, hit them with the high end of a realistic price, says Reed.

2. Make sure the time is right. Convertibles don’t sell well during Seattle’s gray, winter months, but four-wheel drive vehicles do, Emerson says. Likewise, if you owe more on your car trade-in than you think you’ll get from a dealer, you’re in a very weak bargaining position, according to Reed.

“Follow the news and trends,” says Mark Scott, spokesman for in Atlanta. “When gas prices go up, people demand more fuel-efficient cars and the values of trucks and SUVs go down.”

3. Spruce up the car. Give the car the equivalent of “curb appeal” so the potential buyer’s initial reaction is positive.

Emerson, who was a car saleswoman for 13 years, says you should rid the car of any pet or smoke odors. If needed, take it to a dealer or a detail shop and ask for an ozone generator to remove unpleasant smells.

“Remove all your personal items, wash it and vacuum the inside,” says Reed. “There should be nothing to stand in the way of the car dealer visualizing your car on his lot.”

4. Show your records. If you’ve kept all the maintenance records on your car, take them with you and ask the dealer if you can get more for your car because of them, says Scott.

5. Negotiate the new purchase and car trade-in separately. Conventional wisdom dictates that each transaction should be treated separately. However, rather than negotiating the new car price first, Reed suggests you start the deal with the car trade-in, especially if you have a fairly sought-after car. One way to find out is to put up an ad on and see what kind of responses you get. Leave off your phone number if you like and just use the e-mail address, but see how many people bite.

“The trade-in is the weakest part of the deal. But if you have something desirable, the only reason the dealer won’t take it is if he already has two or three of the same vehicle on his lot,” says Reed.

6. What should you say? Start your negotiation by letting the salesperson know you’ve done some research, says Scott. “Say something like, ‘I was researching cars online to see what I can get for this car,’ not ‘it’s worth $4,000 and not a penny less,'” Scott says.

7. Avoid game playing. Reed says some unscrupulous car dealers have been known to throw your keys on the roof so you can’t leave until you drive off in a new car.

“Avoid all this game playing, and don’t surrender your keys,” says Reed. “Make a phone call before you go, ask the used-car manager what the value of your trade-in is. If you get a negative feeling on the phone, you’ll want to scratch them off your list and save yourself a trip.”

8. Explore the tax advantage. All but eight states allow you to pay sales tax on the purchase price of the new vehicle minus what the dealer is giving you for your car trade-in. The reduction in sales tax in states with rates of 9 percent to 11 percent can be substantial.

How to Spray Paint with Automotive Acrylic Enamel Paint

Automotive acrylic enamel is not just for automobiles. It is a durable finish that can be used on any metal, plastic or wooden surface. Automotive acrylic enamel paint is formulated with solvents that dry qAcrylic enamel is not just for cars.uickly, so the best way to apply it is by spraying it with a siphon gun. Rolling or brushing it on won’t properly level out the enamel, and an airless sprayer pumps out too much material for a fine finish. It’s not challenging to spray with a siphon gun. Spray outside, if you wish, but choose a cloudy day that is dry and not too hot.


  1. Fill the cup of a siphon gun about 3/4 full of acrylic enamel and screw the cup onto the gun. Put on a respirator and then turn on the compressor. Test the spray pattern on a scrap piece of wood or metal.
  2. Adjust the air pressure and the nozzle of the gun until you get a spray pattern that is about 6 inches wide from a distance of 6 inches. Loosen spray that is too thin by adjusting the nozzle or add reducer to the paint. Add reducer if the spray is chunky or uneven.
  3. Hold the gun about 6 inches from the surface to be sprayed and pull the trigger. Keep the trigger depressed while you move the gun in a steady up-down or back-and-forth motion, overlapping about half of the spray pattern on each pass. Maintain the same distance from the surface as you move the gun; don’t let it arc away from the surface as you approach the ends.
  4. When you have finished spraying the surface in one direction, immediately spray it again in the perpendicular direction to form a cross-hatch pattern. Correct drips after the paint dries.
  5. Let the enamel dry for at least two hours, and then sand it with fine sandpaper. Sand any drips until they are flat with the surface. Clean off the sanding dust with a clean cloth and spray the surface again in a cross-hatch pattern. When the paint dries, sand and spray a third coat if necessary. Do not sand the final coat.
  6. Polish the final coat with polishing compound or wax and a lambswool polishing cloth, if desired.

ist of Automotive Dealership Jobs

Working at an auto dealership is often characterized asThere are a variety of opportunities working for a car dealership. standing in the snow and selling a rundown used car. But with today’s dealerships come huge showrooms and modern repair facilities and body repair shops. Many dealerships keep up with the times and hire skilled workers in a variety of fields, from parts managers to sales managers to auto technicians.

Sales Managers

  • Sales managers play a crucial position in selling vehicles and maintaining profitability at the dealership. This includes new and used car departments. Sales managers have an understanding of the auto market and manage sales personnel. Customer relations skills are also a must. You must display a high level of ethics and morals when selling vehicles that people are to rely on. Sales managers create sales forecasts regarding operating profits and expenses. You hire and oversee sales staff and work with them to meet goals. Sales managers oversee the standards of merchandise relative to new and used vehicles, such as tires and tow kits. You work with the dealership’s general manager on sales promotions, lease promotions and advertising plans. Sales managers usually have at least two years of sales and management experience.

Service Adviser

  • A service adviser works with customers to schedule appointments for routine vehicle maintenance and repairs. The service adviser communicates with customers to provide auto technicians the problem overview. You greet customers, estimate the cost and labor for the repair, work with the client’s schedule and deal with complaints. Service advisers usually have at least two years of experience in a dealership service department and have Automotive Service Excellence certification.

Parts Manager

  • A parts manager maintains the dealership’s inventory while providing a profit from the department. Your duties include purchasing, inventory control, merchandising display and staffing. The parts manager hires, trains and monitors staff. You oversee an annual budget and work with collision repair and service departments to ensure accurate inventory. The manager creates competitive price points for high customer satisfaction. You should have one year of supervisory experience and experience in the automotive field.

Master Technician

  • A master technician makes auto repairs in the dealership’s service department. Technicians diagnose and repair unique problems rather than working on basic service or repairs. You use computer systems for diagnostic checks. Duties include examining vehicle wear, conferring with customers about vehicle problems and assisting lead technicians in recruiting and hiring trained professionals. You keep the shop clean and safe for high-quality service. Technicians should be certified by the National Institute of Automotive Service Excellence and have at least 10 years of automotive technician experience.

Automotive Engineering Job Description

The automotive industry is an exciting and challenging field fAutomotive engineers work in the motor vehicle industry.or car lovers who want to take the plunge into a professional career. Automotive engineers design, develop and improve vehicles or vehicle components. These engineers solve problems with current systems and design new ones that are functional and innovative. If you have a passion for cars and design, consider a career as an automotive engineer.


  • According to the Occupational Information Network, an automotive engineer designs, develops, builds, tests and modifies models. An automotive engineer designs and analyzes car systems, and designs control systems or algorithms. These workers develop methodologies in calibration, engineering specifications and cost estimates for new car design concepts, and control feature specifications and requirements. An automotive engineer may build models and test them. After testing models, he may modify his designs to obtain a certain level of performance.


  • According to, a salary calculator by, automotive engineers earned an average salary of $83,446. Salaries ranged from below $65,378 to above $118,068.

Industry and Outlook

  • Despite the news of unemployed workers and plant closures, motor vehicle parts manufacturing industry continues to be one of the largest employers in the country, as well as an impacting contributor to our economy, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Almost half of all jobs are located in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan with an increasing number of jobs popping up in the South. Engineers form the largest group of professionals in the motor vehicle parts and manufacturing industry. Employment is expected to decline at a rate of 16 percent through 2018 due to productivity improvements and foreign outsourcing of work.

Hours and Environment

  • According to the BLS, 29 percent of workers in the motor vehicle and parts manufacturing industry work more than 40 hours per week. Overtime occurs during deadlines and peak demand. Engineers can be found in laboratories, offices or industrial plants.

Education and Training

  • According to the BLS, most employers seek at least a bachelor’s degree from entry-level engineering job applicants. An automotive engineer may specialize in mechanical engineering, electrical and electronics engineering or industrial engineering. Depending on what an automotive engineer specializes in, he may have received his degree in that specialty. According to the Princeton Review, some schools offer a major specifically in automotive engineering. Some programs also combine mechanical engineering with automotive engineering.

Exotic Luxury Cars & Classic Sports Car Dealers

They inspire a legion of car enthusiasts to empty their wallets for a taste of life in the fast lane. Featured in high-profile movies and television shows like “Back to the Future” and “Knight Rider,” and among the favourite collectibles of personalities like Jay Leno and Jerry Seinfeld. Any guesses what is our topic of discussion?

Yes, you have guessed it right we are speaking of Exotic Luxury Cars & Classic Sports Cars. Are you seeking the acquisition or sale of a special interest auto, with plans to either Buy Sports Car or Sell Exotic Cars or devote in Classic Car Investment of any form? You have zoomed in at the most apt place.

Established in 2009, Luxury Brokers International Ltd. was established to usher in a new generation of collector car sales and Auto Brokerage and many other related services. Whether you are seeking the acquisition or sale of a special interest auto we approach each transaction diligently, with focus to not only vigorously work on our clients behalf, but to do it in a manner that emphasizes accuracy, efficiency, and professionalism in a process that goes above and beyond the expectations of all parties involved.

We work with following in mind:

Market Analysis: As with any investment, market conditions and their prospective outcome can easily decide a good investment from a bad one. We have an in-depth understanding of market fluctuation in the collector car hobby, so much in fact it is applied to every buying or selling situation that we facilitate. This way you can make a solid investment to enjoy for years to come.

Honesty: We emphasize on our dedication to being the buyers advocate. As the new generation of Car Brokers in an effort to benchmark service without cutting corners we have made it a promise to our clients to fully evaluate all aspects of every transaction.

Protection of Financial Interest: Monetary protection becomes paramount in any transaction no matter the item. Your financial interest is maintained through our due-diligence and protected by handling any and all funds through a secure means, while always keeping you up to date on the transaction.

Full Service Process: We make it a point to provide a hassle free process; where by initial investigation, pre-purchase inspection, negotiations, related paperwork, transfer of monies, logistics, and post purchase car care are all performed by us. This ensures there is consistency and efficiency in the transaction and ultimately our clients total satisfaction.

If you are interested to know more about Classic Sports Car Dealers, please search our site for more in-depth information and resources.

Commonly Encountered Torque Converter Problems (Automatic Transmission)

A torque converter does the job of the clutch in a vehicle with manual transmission. It transfers the rotating power generated by a vehicle’s engine to the transmission mechanism in order for it to shift gears automatically. There are three major torque converter parts—the pump, the turbine, and the stator.

The pump is attached to directly to the engine, and spins at the same speed as the motor. Inside the pump are many fins, which, as the pump spins, direct hydraulic fluid outward to the turbine. The turbine then spins at close to the same speed as the engine, but in the opposite direction. The spinning of the turbine causes the transmission torque converter to rotate and drive the wheels. The hydraulic fluid exits the turbine at its center, moving in the direction opposite to how it was forced in by the pump.

The beneficial part of a torque converter is that it is able to enhance torque when there is a difference between the input and output speed of rotation, which then provides about the same torque as a reduction gear. A converter can be, and is often, used not only in automobiles but also in boats and in buses used for public transportation.

A converter, like any vehicle part, gets worn out and requires the occasional torque repair or torque converter part replacement. You can also opt to upgrade your converter for a high performance driving experience. When you know the limits of your converter, you can spare yourself from torque repair woes, which is more common than you might think. Of course, most of the problems can be avoided by simply knowing the limitations and capabilities of your converter.

Overheating is probably the most common converter problem encountered by users. There is more than one reason for overheating your converter. There could be a defect on the spark plugs; the distributor timing might be off, or there is continuous high level of slippage. Torque repair shops would have to control this situation by checking for the seals, to make sure they haven’t melted away. Broken seals lead to leaks, and leaks lead to poor circulation of transmission fluid.

Due to sudden loading or excessive heating of the converter, the pump and/or turbine blades may get deformed, separated from their hubs or annular rings. On worse cases, they may even break into fragments. At the least, this type of transmission torque converter will result in a significant loss of efficiency, producing symptoms similar to those seen in stator clutch failure. In extreme cases, you might have to undergo total torque rebuild mode. Replacement of torque converter parts like the turbine and the stator is an expensive process. This problem can be rooted to plain bad and careless driving.

A converter problem called ballooning is also commonly seen among units. What happens is, pressure and stress put on the converter’s housing causes it to distort and eventually break. Hot oil and converter parts will automatically spew out. This is a very serious problem that is caused by prolonged operation under excessive loading, very abrupt application of load, or operating a torque converter at very high RPM. For efficient and high performance of your converters, make it a habit to regulate speed and load. The occasional check up is also helpful.

For torque converter services such as torque repair, torque converter installation, torque converter clutch adjustments, and purchase of new or remanufactured torques, check out Ameritorque. They service the areas of Tampa, Brandon, St Petersburg, Clearwater, Lakeland, Hillsborough, Pinellas, Pasco, and Polk.

Benefits Of Restoring Classic Or Antique Cars

Antique car restoration involves reviving the look and efficiency of a vehicle to regain its original appeal. However, several people tend to confuse between restoring a classic vehicle and customizing the automotive. The act of customizing the car implies adding or even modifying the parts of the car such that it appears new. In car restoration, it is crucial to replace the particular parts with parts of similar kind specific to the vehicle. For some it may look like a pile of rusted metal however it works amazingly to create an absolutely new automotive. Also, anyone associated with car restoration will agree that they like working on such project not for the money but simply because they love doing it. Palm Beach customs specialize in restoring cars of absolutely any kind with expertise in providing the sheen back to old classic or antique cars. The structure they build on wheels is fascinating which showcases the glory of giving new life to an old classic.

Every owner is proud of having an antique or vintage car. With such cars allow you to display your style and class. Antique cars can withstand external abrasions with proper maintenance. It becomes an obligation of a classic car owner to ensure that the vehicle is restored as well as maintained properly. A restoration work of this kind improves the appearance and efficiency of the automotive. A quality car is certainly a reason of pride and joy for the owner. For this very reason, car restoration is a fantastic process which restores the look of the car to its original state. When you hire professional services, you get to avail the benefits of antique car restoration, repair and maintenance works. At Palm Beach customs, there is also the provision to acquire custom designs for automotive and vehicle accessories to provide a stunning look for your car.

Car restoration can be affected by various aspects. Factors like the amount of work required, the styling shape as well as the design that needs to be worked on, all play a significant role in the process. The restoration costs entirely depend on the labor applied and the use of various parts. You can simply choose the amount of work to be conducted depending on the money that you can spend on getting the car restored. This also includes any kind of customization that you would want to avail as well. The good thing about doing the task yourself is that the expenditure gets reduced on the labor. But there are some services that require the expertise of a professional for such kind of projects.

Palm Beach customs professionals are trained to conduct these restoration works on classic or antique cars. They also provide services like applying spayon bedliners on the truck so that the cargo does not spoil the truck paint. They also provide collision repair services which can damage the external surface as well as the internal parts of the car massively. The specialists work on big musclecars as well which are quite popular in United States. Any proper car restoration service provider will feature images of the projects that have worked for customers to get a glimpse of their skills and expertise in the field. The website of Palm Beach customs showcases an enormous gallery of pictures of the vehicles that they have worked upon and restored. There is also the provision of connecting with the company on social networking platforms so you can communicate and acquire an insight into their services.


Classic And Advanced Auto Repair In Leduc

The Leduc is an important city of Alberta, Canada. The dwellers of this city have many self-driven cars and classic cars for their transportation needs within the city and for external use. The maintenance arising out of car usage is also an important to do efficient service at Leduc Auto Repairs. This is also applicable for the classic car users. To cater the needs of such vintage or classic cars there are Classic Car repairs Leduc, who are expert in servicing the old cars or the classic cars. One may not worry about auto repair in Leduc, since professional auto repair service are here to cater the needs of conventional cars and classic cars.

Regular Car Maintenance
The daily usage of cars needs regular checkups for not get trouble on the roads and making uncomfortable to others. Many professional Leduc Auto Repairs in the city do the auto repair works with the state of the art technology. The most important feature of this city is there are pioneers to repair the Classic Car repairs Leduc making more comfortable to the Leduc classic car owners. Since, owning a classic car is more than a pride and prestige in Canada for its owners. That why there are many vintage cars show organized in Canada for its popularity and users available here for such cars.

Inspection and Estimate
When you call their service for inspection of your vehicle, they will inform the right mechanics that are to be undergone repair. The Leduc Auto Repairs in all types of car and even they can inspect your Classic Car repairs Leduc. The staff who inspect the vehicle is having years of experience and they can provide you the correct estimates of repair works needed for your car.

Crafted Car Repair Works
The Leduc Auto Repairs are having the state of art technology to operate on your cars. There is no manual works to carry. In this way, they maintain a crash and dent free maintenance work of your car. They see that nuts, screws and bolts to sit properly with screw tightening machine and not to be worried for any loose tightening. They have pressurized equipments to lift your car and do service at comfortable heights. The cleaning is also through pressurized water cleaners.

Timely Delivery
When you book them for Classic Car repairs Leduc, they can say at what time your classic car will be ready. Since, the classic car needs more care than the conventional cars that are service at Leduc Auto Repairs. The conventional and latest care is also repair and timely delivered as promised by them. This kind of timely delivery with perfection is what they guarantee you. All repair works are only avail with experts, in the auto repair in Leduc City. They are always committed to their customer and handle their car very carefully. They also show the changed parts to the car owners. In this way, they do the Leduc Auto Repairs with perfection.

About Car Detailing

About Car Detailing

There is nothing like having a clean car. While anyone can simply clean his vehicle, it takes a lot of time and effort to get the car to look as if it just came off the showroom floor.

Detailers take great time and effort to ensure that your car looks its finest. Detailing is more than just washing the exterior and vacuuming the carpets. It’s about getting into every nook and cranny and removing dirt and grime that have built up over the years–thus restoring the car to showroom quality.


  • Auto detailing is done for different reasons.

    The art of car detailing is said to have started in Southern California, though no one is quite sure exactly when. Detailing is defined as thoroughly cleaning a vehicle inside and out, in addition to applying wax and polishing the vehicle, thus producing a level of detail that would be deemed show-quality.

    The practice of car detailing has spread throughout the United States and has become more than just a fad. Currently, over 50,000 detailers exist across the country, and these individuals rake in approximately $100,000 a year in detailing sales.


  • Polishing chrome is a big part of detailing.

    Sometimes an individual will have his vehicle detailed simply because he wants a clean car. At other times, detailing becomes a very serious business, especially when the person having her auto detailed intends to enter it in a car show. In car shows, a vehicle is often judged partially on how well-kept and clean it appears. One such car show that is devoted mainly to the appearance of cars is the Concours d’Elegance, sometimes referred to as the Concours.


    • Detailing takes time and a lot of hard work.

      There are different methods of auto detailing. One is exterior detailing, which includes waxing, claying, correcting paint defects and polishing the exterior of the vehicle.

      The second type is interior detailing. Interior detailing typically involves liquid cleaners and brushes. Every surface within the interior of the car must be cleaned, from the dashboard, console and visors to the instrument panel. Vacuuming is performed as well.

      The third type of detailing has to do with the engine: It involves removing grease and dirt from the engine bay with all-purpose cleaners and de-greasers.


    • Though it would appear that detailing covers every aspect of cleaning a vehicle, it does not encompass considerations like upholstery work, painting, body work or mechanical repair.

      The purpose of detailing is to bring out the vehicle’s appearance potential via the polishing and waxing of exterior paint, wheels and chrome, and by giving the upholstery and seats a thorough cleaning.

      Depending on the detailer, a customer might also be able to purchase undercoating services (including rust-proofing) and interior sealant. Some detailers even repair convertible tops or vinyl upholstery. Most do not, however, and will usually refer you to professionals who specialize in such repairs.


    • Most auto-detailing shops are in remote locations. Because most detailers are not businessmen but craftsmen, they do not typically advertise their services aggressively. You are most likely to find an auto detailer working in a mechanic’s garage, or perhaps out of a private residence. Mobile auto detailing is also becoming increasingly popular, as it allows the owner to have his vehicle professionally detailed without ever having to leave home or the office.

How to Use Urethane Clear Over Acrylic Enamal

Make your car look beautiful by giving it a new paint job and a coat of urethane clear.

Painting a car makes it look new again. When a car is painted with acrylic enamel, a clear coat is applied over the paint. The clear coat of urethane supplies the acrylic enamel paint with a buffer between the paint and the elements. Weather, dirt and other damaging elements never touch the actual paint on the car. The clear urethane protects the car’s paint while giving the car a beautiful, glossy coating. Restoring the paint job on a car isn’t too complicated, but it is time consuming. Once the car’s paint job is finished, the car looks fantastic.

Preparing the Car

1. Remove all of the removable trim from the car. That means remove metal trim, mirrors, grills and bumpers.

2. Wash the car using detergent and water. Rinse it well, and wash it a second time using a wax and grease remover.

3. Tape over items you don’t remove. Tape the window molding and door handles. Put newspaper over the glass areas, and tape it into place, so paint stays off of the glass.

4. Put on the protective eye wear and face mask before sanding. Sand off as much of the paint as possible, using an electric sander with fine grit sandpaper. Sand rough or rusted areas with coarse grit sandpaper first, and then switch to fine grit.

5. Clean the car thoroughly with soap and water. Wipe off any excess moisture before painting.

6. Prepare yourself for painting by putting on the protective eye wear and face mask before sanding. Spray on a thin coat of primer on the car. Cover all of the areas that need painting. Let the primer dry completely.

7. Sand the car using wet/dry sandpaper wrapped around a sponge. Wipe off the car with a wet cloth when you finish sanding all of the painted areas.

8. Remove the tape and newspaper from the car if it is wet. Replace the tape or newspaper before painting the car. Let the car dry for 36 hours before painting.

Painting the Acrylic Enamel Coats of Paint

  • 1

    Follow the manufacturer’s instructions for mixing the paint and putting it in the spray gun. Each paint manufacturer is slightly different, so always consult the instructions.

  • 2

    Put on the protective eye wear and face mask before sanding. Spray the paint onto the car starting at the top of the car, and working your way down to the bottom. Keep the spray gun at least a foot away from the car as you spray the paint. Go back and forth with the paint overlapping previously painted areas, so the paint gets a smooth look. Remember, keep the paint thin, or it runs.

  • 3

    Let the paint dry once you have a solid coat on the car. Check the car for any rough spots or drips. If you find any, sand the area with damp sandpaper, and wipe it with a damp cloth. Dry the area thoroughly, and paint a second coat of paint on the car. Repeat this procedure one more time for a good, solid coat of paint. Let the car dry for 36 hours.

Applying Urethane Clear Over Acrylic Enamel

  • 1

    Wait for a good dry day before using the urethane clear on the car. If it is damp the spray gun picks up dirt, dust and moisture, and blends it into the paint ruining the paint job.

  • 2

    Prepare the urethane clear according to the manufacturer’s instructions. Follow the mixing instructions, and remember, only mix the amount you need. Extra mixed urethane sets up in the container before the next morning, so throw away any leftover mixed urethane.

  • 3

    Spray a thin coat of urethane clear onto the car starting at the top and working your way down. Once the whole car is covered, let it dry according to the manufacturer’s instructions. It usually takes about 15 minutes for drying between layers.

  • 4

    Check the car for any drips or rough areas. Sand drips or rough areas with a damp piece of wet/dry sandpaper. Wipe the area with a damp cloth, and dry thoroughly.

  • 5

    Add two more coats of clear urethane the same way. Let the urethane dry completely between layers.

  • 6

    Let the urethane clear dry for at least 90 minutes before removing the tape and paper. The car is finished.

How to Clear Coat Your Car

Clear coating keeps your car shiny.

A clear coat on a car gives it a new, fresh look, and it protects the paint job from the elements. If you are refinishing your car or are looking to customize a vehicle, the clear coat is applied after you finish painting. You can hire a professional to finish your car for you, but this is expensive. Clear coating your own car takes little time and effort and is also inexpensive. To do it yourself, you need little more than some sandpaper, an airbrush and some clear coat.


1. Cover anything you do not want clear coated with newspaper or plastic sheeting. This includes windows, door handles, mirrors and head and tail lights. Use masking tape to secure the protective covering in place.

2. Dip your sandpaper in water to moisten it. Use the wet sandpaper to sand the entire surface of your car until it is smooth. Remoisten the sandpaper as needed throughout the sanding. When choosing sandpaper, use a fine grain. Leave the car to dry completely.

3. Wipe your entire car down with a wet rag to remove any dust and debris. When you clear coat, you will seal in everything on the car’s surface. Allow the car to dry again.

4. Prepare your clear coat according to manufacturer’s instructions. Each brand will have a different set of instructions on mixing. Add the mixed clear coat to an airbrush.

5. Use steady strokes to coat the entire car with the airbrush. Work in 12 inch sections to ensure evenness in the coating.

6. Leave your clear coat to dry completely. Drying times will vary by product as well as environmental conditions.

7. Remove all of the protective coverings from your car.

8. Polish your car using an electric buffer and buffing compound of your choice.

Tips & Warnings

If you have never worked with an airbrush before, take your time. If you are not happy with the finished product, you can resand your car and try again.

When painting and clear coating, keep your car in a well-ventilated location, out of the elements. Your room should be dust free.


How to Mix Acrylic Enamel For Automotive Paint

Acrylic enamel automotive paint dries to a high gloss shine without a clear coat.

Acrylic enamel automotive paint is a popular choice and an improvement on the older acrylic lacquer paints. The enamel paint is more durable and easier to apply than acrylic lacquer paints. Acrylic enamel automotive paint is a single stage paint, meaning no clear coat is needed because it dries to a glossy shine. Acrylic enamel cannot be sprayed on a car alone. Add reducer and a catalyst to the paint before it is sprayed on a vehicle.


  • 1. Place a measuring cup on a flat surface. Pour the desired amount of acrylic enamel paint into the cup, leveling the amount off at a specific measurement mark so you know the exact amount. Write down the exact measurement and then pour the paint into the clean paint can.
  • 2. Add the reducer to the empty measuring cup. The amount of reducer depends on the amount of paint used. The ratio for acrylic enamel paints is 8 parts paint, 2 parts reducer and 1 part catalyst. If you use 8 ounces of paint, add 2 ounces of reducer to the measuring cup, making sure it is level with the measurement line. Pour the measured reducer into the paint can with the paint.
  • 3. Pour 1 part catalyst or hardener into the measuring cup, keeping the levels accurate and according to the mixture ratio of 8:2:1 of paint, reducer and catalyst. The catalyst, or hardener, is added to the acrylic enamel paint to make sure it dries completely. Without the catalyst, the paint and reducer would never fully dry. Add the amount of measured catalyst to the mixture in the paint can.
  • 4. Mix the mixture of acrylic enamel paint, reducer and catalyst very well. The better the three products are mixed together, the easier and smoother the paint can be sprayed onto the car. Pour the mixture into a paint gun or put a lid on the can until it is needed.

Massive Paint Shortages at House of Kolor

For many of us painting cars and motorcycles is not an occupation it’s a hobby. We are not looking to paint a fender on a 2002 Buick we are looking to do a custom paint job, something special something out of the ordinary. And to be fair this is a very small slice of the automotive paint business. And the automotive paint business is a very small slice of the coatings business that said it is a very important slice of the business, and for many of us the most fun slice.
The Big name in the custom paint business is House of Kolor a division of  The Valspar Corporation.Valspar is not a small company it has more than 9,000 employees with a market cap of more than 4Billion US$, not a BASF or DuPont to be sure but Big Industry. A former Valspar employee told me this week that House of Kolor is one of the highest margin divisions of the company.

'56 Chevy

As a paint retailer we sell the most custom paint right at this time of year. Springtime we want to fix up the Harley for the open road or do that custom paint job on the ’56 Chevy.
In a letter to House of Kolor customers from Nick Dahl, House of Kolor General Manager, addresses the Stock Shortages. He blames the inventory shortfalls on supply chain shortfalls and inventory shortfalls from his suppliers.
Looking at the HOK master stock list there are 150 items that are “temporarily out of stock” the list includes primers and sealers, the new DTM colored surfacers and sealers, all of the solid base coats, most of the  Glamour Basecoats (BC) most of the Fine Basecoats (FBC), most of the Kandy Basecoats  (KBC), many of the Urethane Kandys (UK) and the Kandy Koncentrates (KK). There are also major shortages in the Graphic Kolors (SG) and the Designer Pearls (PBC) also the Kosmic Krome (MC), and the Marbizers.
To be fair they say they will have most of these problems cleared up by late May.
They also are discontinuing many products almost the whole Metajuls line (MBC) I never even got to try that line. They are discontinuing the airbrush size items and about 50 other items.
Is there any one out there to come in and pick up the slack? This could be the best time for a new Custom Paint Company to come forward.

Winter Car Storage Guide

For owners of luxury or classic and sports cars, fall season is the end of the driving season and gets people to think about winter car storage. Many people with a hobby vehicle store their special car during winter, so it will be spared from the hars cold weather. But before storage the car should be properly prepared. Here’s a helpful guide:

1. Storage Location: Pick a dry and safe facility to storge your vehicle during winter. Your garage could do the job just fine. But if you do not have a home garage, find a self-storage facility with concrete floor. The self-storage unit or building doesn’t have to be climate controlled but must not be prone to excessive moisture.

2. Check The Engine Oil: Pull the dip stick to check the engine oil. If it’s very dirty and you have reached the mileage limit, it should be changed before you store the car. Otherwise, you could wait until spring and start the season with new oil. The kilometers used is the most important factor when talking about engine oil. Modern oil, especially the synthetic type is stable for one year in the a car’s engine. Fogging the engine of your car isn’t necessary unless you’re storing your car for more than one year.

3. Wash & Clean: Before storing your vehicle, clean it thoroughly to make sure that there are no contaminants left on the exterior during the period of storage.

4. Top Up Fluids: After cleaning your vehicle, drive it to the gas station to get rid of any water from the crevices. Fill the gas tank then add fuel stabilizer. Allow it to run for several minutes in order to allow the stabilizer to flow through the engine’s fuel system. Check other fluid levels like anti-freeze. Make sure they’re topped up.

5. Tires: At the self-storage facility, inflate the tires to the maximum PSI rate, which is indicated on the tires’ sidewall. Doing so will help prevent the tires from having flat spots. It’s important to get rid of modern radial tires and it’s not advisable to put a vehicle up on blocks and just leave the suspension hanging for a long time. Leave your vehicle in neutral and make sure you disengage the hand brake. An automatic transmission vehicle could be left in park in order to prevenet any movement. The vehicle must be parked on level surface.

6. Battery: The opinions regarding batteries vary, but it’s still best to take the battery out. You can leave your batter in your home on a piece of wood connected to a battery tender/maintener, and not a trickle charger. Some newer vehicles require that the battery is connected all the time in order to preserve the memory of the computer. In such case, it is alright to connect the tender to the battery while the hood is slightly open, to run the cables in the engine bay.

7. Ventilation: Leave the window one inch lower to have a good air flow and prevent moisture from developing inside the car.

1964 Chevy Impala SS

The 1964 Impala SS is moving into the paint booth tomorrow for the second priming. Once I have the Impala blown off, wiped down and in the bright light of the paint booth. I am personally going to do a once over of the Impala to make certain that this car is as straight as it needs to be. Mike has chosen an extremely dark blue, and for all the work that has gone into this car. I do not want any ripples or waves.

I arrived at Glory Days at 7:30 this morning. I spent 8 hours of my day working on getting the Impala fuel door fit to the car. I had to completely redo all of the work that had already been done.


How to Replace a Quarter Panel Skin

Use a grinder with a wire wheel to remove the paint from the door jamb area and the area that is welded to the taillight panel.
These spot welds as well as the  ones on the door jamb will be drilled out after the majority of the panel is removed


Here I have started removing the quarter panel.  I grinded all of the corners and cut the panel just below the body line.  This quickly got rid of most of the panel.  Then I went back and drilled out all of the spot welds that were on the door pillar and taillight panel extensions.  There are also spot welds on the inside where the rear window is down on the rocker panel.



I cut below the body line initially.  This gives you a lip to hang the new quarter panel on so that you can trace where the final cut needs to be.  After I traced the replacement quarter panel onto the car I cut it with a cut off wheel on my grinder.  When I cut it I left the line and then ground it down for the final fit.
This is what it looks like with the quarter panel removed.  It is easy to see why it is necessary to put a brace on the taillight panel.
I used a rust converter on the surface rust and then sprayed it black.


Here is a picture of the quarter panel “hanging” in place.


I found some rust while working on the quarter panel.  After wire wheeling it I found that it was pretty severe.


The affected area was removed.  The blue lines show where I cut it.


I then welded in a patch.  There was also a rust spot on the roof rail as well.  It was cut out and new metal was welded in.


Here is the completed repair
This is what it looked like before.


Clamps were used to hold the wheel well in place.  I clamped the quarter panel in place and adjusted the wheel well until it lined up with thequarter panel.


Next I removed the quarter panel and welded the wheel well in place.


Next I welded the inner wheel well in place.  I used the support that runs from the package tray to the wheel well to line everything up.  The inner wheel well is an original (not to the car) and the outer is a reproduction.


Next it was time to weld in the quarter panel.  Before fitting it to the car I punched holes in the lip that gets welded to the door pillar.  This will allow me to mimic factory spot welds using a mig welder.


The same procedure was used on the bottom flange of the quarter panel.
The first part that I welded was the door pillar.


Then I tack welded next to the body line using a hammer and dolly to make the metal line up perfectly.
Next I welded the wheel arch to the wheel well.  I used a heat sink compound to prevent warping.


This is the heat sink compound that I used.


While welding along the long seam I used a piece of flattened copper pipe as a backer to fill the gap in.  It also acts as a heat sink to prevent warping.  The heat sink compound was also used.  I welded the entire seam with very little warping of the panels.  The small amount of warping that did occur was easily fixed with a hammer and dolly.
View of heat sink prior to welding.


View of the seam with the heat sink compound on either side of the weld.


View of the final weld


Another view of the weld
All welding complete.  Ready for grinding.

Ferrari 458 Spider restyled

A. Kahn Design has recently conducted a series of styling changes on a Ferrari 458 Spider. The car seen here is wearing an attractive Grigio Alloy paint and rides on Monza forged alloy wheels which are available in a wide variety of colors and come with the original center caps. It has also received a lowered suspension, black-painted brake calipers, matt rear styling detail and updated front sections.
A series of modifications were brought to the interior as well where UK-based Kahn Design applied its “bespoke touch” and went for a luxurious Nero cabin.

Source: A. Kahn Design

Restoration of a Classic Car

The restoration of a classic car is an enormous task. It is something that involves a great deal of commitment. There are many steps that you need to take to restore a car to its former condition. It isn’t going to be easy but it is going to be worth it. Make certain that this is something you want to do otherwise your heart just won’t be in it. A task like this requires a personal devotion in order to see it through to the end. Whether this is a weekend hobby or an everyday work of art, restoring a classic car is a special activity.

You will need to determine how much work is ahead of you and try to plan accordingly for it. In many cases a restoration project begins with just the frame. You need to establish how many parts you will need for the car since missing parts will be the first challenge. It can be tough to find certain parts, especially if they are outdated. Make a list of everything you need and start hunting it down on the internet.

Have a vision clearly in place in your mind. Even the most discouraging looking scrap of car can be transformed into a brand new machine that shocks and delights. There are shows on TV that do this all the time. Know that it can be done and keep that goal in your mind of how you want to see it look when it’s finished. If you have nothing to work toward you may find yourself getting discouraged.

Keep the car somewhere close by so that you can work on it whenever you have some spare time. If you have it stored away somewhere then you may find that you don’t get to it as often as you should. If it’s at your home in the garage you will be able to devote a regular scheduled amount of time to the restoration process. It can take a long time so have a realistic schedule laid out for yourself. Make sure all of your parts and pieces are kept organized and tidy so that you can easily find what you need.

Try to plan your restoration so that it goes step by step. Try not to skip ahead to issues that you are not ready to tackle yet. Start from the beginning and work your way to the end. There is no use jumping ahead and then having to go back to take care of something that you chose to put off.

If you have any questions or concerns regarding legal or safety issues involved with restoring a classic car, seek out a professional that can offer you some sound advice. Likewise, any custom upgrades that you plan to do must meet all legal safety requirements for your area. It’s a good idea to choose classic car restoration because it is something that you enjoy. Don’t get into it just for the intent to make money. It doesn’t always work out that way. Restoring a car should be a fun process that you enjoy throughout.

How to Write a Job Objective on a Resume for an Automotive Technician

The resume objective is your opportunity to summarize what youSpecify systems you are trained in in your objective. can bring to a job. It is where you briefly explain what automotive repair experience and education you have and tell the employer what specific job you want. It is also where you concisely state your qualifications and certifications. Keep your objective under three lines of text to make it easy for employers to read and know what kind of job you are looking for.


  1. Summarize your experience and qualifications at the beginning of your objective. For example, if you are certified as an Automotive Service Excellence (ASE), you might state, “ASE Certified automotive mechanic with five years of experience diagnosing, repairing and maintaining automotive systems seeks position as lead shift technician.” Stating your experience in your objective lets an employer immediately know how well you are qualified from the first lines of your resume.
  2. State what position you want in the objective. Avoid being vague in your objective. Do not, for example, write, “Seeking position where I can grow professionally in a team-oriented environment.” Tell the employer exactly what job you want instead of leaving him wondering if you would even want the types of positions he has open. If you are replying to a specific job advertisement, insert the title of the job into your objective exactly as it is written. If you are looking for a more general position, include the title you are most interested in working. For example, you might write that you seek a position as an entry-level technician.
  3. State how you can benefit the employer’s business in your objective. Avoid focusing on what type of work environment you want or what an employer can do for you. For example, write, “Automotive mechanic seeks technician position where my experience and training in hybrid technology can increase the customer base of the repair facility.”
  4. Mention other qualifications you have in your resume objective that relate to being an automotive technician. For example, you might include your excellent communication skills in explaining customers’ vehicle problems and repairs to them, or your reputation for honest dealings with all customers. Also, include information on specific make and model systems training and experience you

How to Become a Car Magazine Test Driver

Becoming an automotive test driver is not easy. There is no set path or perfect resume. If there were ever one requirement however, it’s to have a deep passion for cars and to be able to convey that passion through your work

The Ford GT is one of the few true American supercars.


  1. Get passion. No career is worth going after with no passion behind it. Especially in the enthusiast automotive journalism field, passion is a must. Passion isn’t something you learn or gain; it’s something that’s virtually innate and which develops your entire life. For anyone looking to get involved in car testing, a passion for cars is what will drive you forward and lead you to a successful career.
  2. Get educated. There is no strict set path, degree, or way to prepare for a career as an automotive tester. The best that can be done is to try to build a resume and to gain experience in as many aspects involved in being an automotive tester as possible. Being an automotive tester requires many skills, ranging from engineering know-how to journalism experience and the ability to interestingly, entertainingly convey information that is sometimes very technical to the average person. Car magazine editors and testers include people with degrees in journalism, graphic design, engineering, and other fields.
  3. Get involved. Any opportunity that comes about that could you help prepare for this career should be pursued. These opportunities range from building a car to getting involved in race teams to taking a specific automotive course and more. It is important to build a resume with as many relevant activities as possible. Even if the experience isn’t exactly in automotive testing, take it. Writing for a newspaper, a blog or any sort of publication is useful experience and will teach you how publications are run and how to improve your writing skills and style.
  4. Get to know cars. As much fun as it might seem to thrash a car and smoke the tires, car testing is much more than having a heavy right foot. Testing a car on a race track is a great way to test sports cars’ performance and handling, but to thoroughly test a car it needs to be judged from many different angles. What is the purpose of the car? Judging a Toyota Prius for its speed doesn’t make sense because a car needs to be judged by what it was designed to do. Know what a car’s purpose is and test against that. Keep things relevant to what the car is designed for, and let the important factors stand out. Two other things to consider when trying to judge and write about a car are the car’s primary competitors and how the car makes you feel while driving it.
  5. Get lucky. Many car magazine test drivers got their first job as a “motor gopher” or “road warrior” simply by applying for the job and getting lucky. Their job was to wash cars, fill them with gas, drive them to photo shoots, and even look good in them while photographers shoot the cars. Many road warriors have turned that first car magazine job into careers. Some people join car magazines by excelling in other careers, such as copy editing or magazine production or photography. You won’t get hired by a car magazine if you don’t apply for a job there.

Automotive Engineering Job Description

The automotive industry is an exciting and challenging field for car lovers who want to take the plunge into a professional career. Automotive Automotive engineers work in the motor vehicle industry.engineers design, develop and improve vehicles or vehicle components. These engineers solve problems with current systems and design new ones that are functional and innovative. If you have a passion for cars and design, consider a career as an automotive engineer.


  • According to the Occupational Information Network, an automotive engineer designs, develops, builds, tests and modifies models. An automotive engineer designs and analyzes car systems, and designs control systems or algorithms. These workers develop methodologies in calibration, engineering specifications and cost estimates for new car design concepts, and control feature specifications and requirements. An automotive engineer may build models and test them. After testing models, he may modify his designs to obtain a certain level of performance.


  • According to, a salary calculator by, automotive engineers earned an average salary of $83,446. Salaries ranged from below $65,378 to above $118,068.

Industry and Outlook

  • Despite the news of unemployed workers and plant closures, motor vehicle parts manufacturing industry continues to be one of the largest employers in the country, as well as an impacting contributor to our economy, according to the U.S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. Almost half of all jobs are located in Ohio, Indiana and Michigan with an increasing number of jobs popping up in the South. Engineers form the largest group of professionals in the motor vehicle parts and manufacturing industry. Employment is expected to decline at a rate of 16 percent through 2018 due to productivity improvements and foreign outsourcing of work.

Hours and Environment

  • According to the BLS, 29 percent of workers in the motor vehicle and parts manufacturing industry work more than 40 hours per week. Overtime occurs during deadlines and peak demand. Engineers can be found in laboratories, offices or industrial plants.

Education and Training

  • According to the BLS, most employers seek at least a bachelor’s degree from entry-level engineering job applicants. An automotive engineer may specialize in mechanical engineering, electrical and electronics engineering or industrial engineering. Depending on what an automotive engineer specializes in, he may have received his degree in that specialty. According to the Princeton Review, some schools offer a major specifically in automotive engineering. Some programs also combine mechanical engineering with automotive engineering.

How to Flush an Automatic Transmission System

If you have ever looked through your car’s owners manual, it probably says that the car is maintenance free in a lot of areas. In fact, newer cars may even advertise you never have to change things like the automatic transmission fluid. I would not suggest you follow that advice. Engines create a lot internal heat because of the friction of the churning of the engine inside the torque converters, clutch plates, gears and bearings. This friction, or grinding, is what accumulates tiny bits of debris that eventually leads you back to the car lot to buy another automobile.

Most mechanics recommend you the change the fluid and filter every 30,000 miles for older vehicles.  Newer cars that run on Dexron III ATF are supposed to be able to go 100,000 miles

before you need to flush and replace the fluid.

If you are interested in flushing all of the old automatic transmission fluid out of your engine, the following process explains how it can be done in your garage, even by a novice mechanic, and save you money.

I should note that the following procedure was performed on a 2000 Nissan Maxima, but the procedure applies to all vehicles. I suggest you look online for a forum dedicated to your type of vehicle if you have any questions.
How to Flush an Automatic Transmission

The first thing you need to do is go and get all of the materials you will need for the transmission fluid change because once you get your car jacked up and start emptying it out, there is no stopping and going back to get what you forgot. Well, unless you have another car.

First make a list of what you need. I recommend starting out with 10 quarts of AT fluid. My preference is Mobil 1 Synthetic, but you will also want to buy some regular type of fluid, meaning less expensive, because you will be using it to flush out the old fluid, then replace, then flush again, then replace.

So rather than using the expensive synthetic fluid to flush the old out, use the less expensive fluid first, and end the process with the Mobil 1 Synthetic Automatic Transmission Fluid which is the fluid that will remain in the engine.
Now You Are Ready to Begin

Jack up either the front or drivers side of the car and put jack stands underneath the car.

Remove the drivers side engine undercover that protects the bottom of the engine. Be careful not to break the grommets that hold the cover in place.

Remove the drain plug from transmission and drain fluid into a proper container. This will drain approximately 4 quarts.

Insert the drain plug back into the pan and tighten.
Pour the same amount (approximately 4 quarts) of new transmission fluid into the transmission. The transmission should now be back to stock level.

Disconnect the fluid supply line at the bottom of radiator. This is the bottom line connected to the transmission. Be very careful removing this line, it’s very easy to break the hose nipple on the radiator.

Note: If the transmission fluid comes out of the bottom of the radiator instead of the hose you are holding you have the wrong line. Hook that one back to the radiator and remove the other one.

Put the end of the hose into a clean, clear or white plastic 1 gal container. While you are holding the hose get someone to start the car until the transmission pumps out approximately 2 qts  and the gallon container is half full. This should take 15-20 seconds.

Flush 2 quarts at a time to prevent draining the transmission. Remember, you are only taking out 2 quarts at a time from a system that holds 10 quarts.
Refill with 2 fresh quarts of fluid after taking out 2 quarts.  By only removing 2 quarts at a time, it allows the transmission to remain filled with enough fluid to prevent damage and also have enough new fluid in it to “push” the old fluid thru the converter and out the return line as you go.

Repeat the previous steps until fluid changes color. Since you already put 4 qts in initially and the transmission holds 9 qts we are talking about approx 5 qts.  If you buy 10 quarts and repeat the process 2 to 4 time, it will ‘push’ out all of the old fluid.  If your fluid is in fairly good condition the color change will be very small and may not be noticeable, so stop at 10 qts.
Remember to use the Mobil 1 Synthetic last when you are finished flushing it through the hose.
Reinstall the hose to the radiator.

Replace the engine cover, and lower the car.

Check the transmission fluid level by removing the dipstick to make sure you have the correct amount in the system.
Summarizing the Process

What you have basically done is removed all the fluid from the pan and the internal pump and system and replaced all fluid internal to the transmission without shocking your transmission  like the force flush machines do at the automotive shops.

This is much simpler than it sounds. I personally use clean, empty water  jugs and compare the fresh fluid level in one jug with the level of old fluid in the other jug so that I could replace the old fluid with the exact amount I took out. It is ok to eyeball the 2 quart level. Just refill the same amount, then repeat the drain process, then add another 2 quarts. The entire process should take about 30 minutes, less if you have a helper.

Tips for Changing Automatic Transmission Fluid in Ford F-250, Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator

Ford Super Duty Trucks and E-Series vans are very similar
Step By Step Instructions Changing Transmission Fluid

This article will be especially helpful for owners of Ford Super Duty Trucks, Ford Excursions, all E-series vans, Ford Expeditions and Lincoln Navigators that are newer than the year 2000. This article will also work for any other vehicle that requires a 4R100 transmission fluid change. It seems as though the need to change the transmission fluid always comes at such an inconvenient time, but as responsible vehicle owners, we realize that it’s a necessary evil. Keeping your Ford transmission healthy can save you a huge headache and expense in the long run.

It is easier than you think to change your transmission fluid, filter and gasket for your Ford F-250, F-350, Excursion, E-Series vans, Expedition and Lincoln Navigator. Changing the transmission fluid on a Ford F-250 is almost the exact same process as a transmission fluid change in a Ford Expedition and Lincoln Navigator. Transmission fluid for E-Series vans is necessary to keep your Ford Truck running smoothly. This article contains tips and instructions for Ford Transmission fluid changes, and is a project that you can do by yourself and save a lot of money. You can buy a Ford gasket online or at your local Ford service center at a reasonable cost. You may also want to consider purchasing Ford Filters in bulk to save you money on your vehicle maintenance.
Do It Yourself Ford Transmission Fluid Change

As we mentioned earlier, owning a vehicle comes with responsibilities, and necessary expenses. One of the most important responsibilities in Ford Truck maintenance is to regularly change your vehicle’s fluids. One of the most important fluids in your Ford vehicle is the transmission fluid. As we know, transmission health can make or break your vehicle, so it’s important to be proactive in ensuring that this maintenance is done as scheduled. If you have an automatic transmission, it is recommended that you change your ATF or automatic transmission fluid every 10,000 miles and change the Ford transmission fluid filter and gasket every 30,000 miles. Use caution when you buy discount auto parts; you may want to stick with brand name supplies to ensure that you are using high quality auto fluids with your vehicle.

When changing your transmission fluid, it is important to have all your supplies on hand before beginning your project as you cannot drive your vehicle to pick up additional automobile maintenance supplies at your local automobile parts store once you have begun. You’d be surprised how many people neglect this simple fact and end up having to either put things back together or get a ride to the nearest auto parts store. Make sure to have two gallons of Mercon Automatic Transmission Fluid or similar item on hand. It is also a great idea to have a quart of Lucas Oil’s Transmission fix. You also need a gasket which will come with the filter when you buy it. All these products are available at auto parts stores such as Pep Boys, Advance Auto Parts, AutoZone, Checker Auto Parts and Napa Auto Parts. Call the auto parts store in advance to make sure that they have the transmission fluid or Ford parts that you will need. You will also need a drain collection pan, a standard socket set and a flat tip screw driver.

Start your transmission fluid change by parking your Ford Truck on a flat surface and engaging your emergency parking brake. Make sure to block your rear tires to make sure your vehicle doesn’t slip while you are working on it. Jack up the front end of your Ford Truck and place it on jack stands.

Locate your transmission pan in your F-250 or other Ford vehicle. It is located just aft of your transmission and will most usually have a drain plug bolt at the lowest point. Place your drain collection pan underneath the drain plug and loosen the plug slowly. Allow the Automatic transmission fluid to completely drain from your vehicle. Once the fluid is drained take the transmission pan off with a your socket set. There is no order in which to loosen or tighten the bolts just make sure not to loose them. Do make sure not to take all the bolts off of just one side and let the pan basically dangle. This could possibly bend the pan and cause damage. If that happens, you will need to find Ford motor replacement parts before you can continue. Instead, carefully remove the bolts and hold the pan up while removing the remaining bolts and lower the pan to the ground.

Clean up the pan with a lint free shop rag and set aside. Remove the filter by pulling down while rotating it gently. If the gasket did not come off with the pan, remove it from the transmission pan housing. If it is fused or stuck to the housing you can carefully pry it off with a flat head screw driver. You can purchase a flat tip screwdriver or other tools at your local hardware store, if you don’t already have one. Make sure to not scratch the housing as it might cause leaks.

Install the new Ford filter and place the new gasket on the transmission pan so that it lines up with the bolt pattern. Hold the pan in place and line the pan up with the bolt holes in the transmission pan housing. Hand tighten all the bolts back in place and use your socket set to tighten the bolts down. Make sure to not tighten the bolts so far that they warp the pan. Once the pan is properly in place, replace the drain plug and tighten it down.

If you are concerned about your transmission it is a good idea to add a quart of Transmission Fix by Lucas. It takes the place of one quart of Automatic Transmission Fluid. Lucas Oil Transmission Fix helps keep the seals from sticking, keeping your transmission running smooth. It’s actually one of our favorite additives; it seems to work wonders. This will help reduce the risk of you needing Ford transmission repair in the future.

Add 5 more quarts of Automatic Transmission Fluid. Start your vehicle and place your foot on the brake while shifting through all gears including reverse and then back up to park. Next, take your vehicle for a short test drive not to exceed 10 miles and see how it rides. You should use this test drive time to check for any leaks and to work the new fluid through the filter. Once you are back at your house, check the transmission fluid level and add fluid as necessary. That’s it! You should be good to go for another 10,000 miles

How to Make Money Scrapping Auto Batteries

Old auto batteries cannot simply be thrown away becauseMake Money Scrapping Auto Batteries they contain toxic substances, such as acid and lead. The lead makes them valuable to scrappers, though. So you can provide a service and earn money at the same time by collecting old auto batteries and selling them to a recycling facility.


  1. Locate a place to store the auto batteries. In order to make money scrapping old auto batteries, you must collect enough to make it worth delivering them to the scrapping facility. You need an appropriate place to store them, such as a concrete-floored garage or shed. Old auto batteries can develop acid leaks, so they should be kept concrete to in case of a leak. Do not store them outdoors or you may run into problems with local zoning laws.
  2. Place an ad on Craigslist for your local area, post notices on bulletin boards and spread the word among friends and co-workers. Most people like to support recycling efforts, so they may be happy to give you old auto batteries if they know you’ll be recycling them.
  3. Find the local recycling facility that offers the most money for scrap auto batteries. Auto batteries are purchased by scrappers because they contain reusable lead. If you have more than one facility in the area that purchases old auto batteries, compare the amounts they pay. Weigh this against the distance you must travel to deliver the batteries, as gas costs can offset a higher pay rate if a facility is too far away.
  4. Once you have gathered a full load of batteries, bring them to the recycling facility. Wear safety glasses and gloves when handling the batteries to protect yourself from possible acid leaks. Protect the hauling vehicle by covering the cargo area with a plywood board covered by a tarp. This should be enough to protect the area from acid during transit. If they become damaged, they are easily replaced. Drop the batteries off and collect your cash.

How to Recondition a Car Battery at Home

If your car’s battery isn’t holding a charge or otherwise is not up to par, you may be able to fix it. The most common cause of degraded battery performance in lead-acid batteries is sulfation, which occurs when sulfur collects on the lead plates in the battery, blocking the electric current. It’s not difficult to recondition a car battery at home. However, sulfation causes irreversible corrosion of the lead plates, so this process will work only three to five times.
It’s not difficult to recondition a car battery at home.


  1. Test the battery to see if it is likely to respond to reconditioning; it needs to register 12 volts on a voltmeter. If it’s between 10 and 12 volts, you may be able to restore the battery to full function, but if it tests at less than 10 volts, you’re probably wasting your time.
  2. Heat a half quart of distilled water to 150 degrees F, and dissolve 7 or 8 oz. of Epsom salts in the water.
  3. Remove the battery cell caps. If you have a sealed battery, find the “shadow plugs” that cover openings to the battery cells–you’ll need to drill through these.
  4. Drain any fluid out of the battery and use a plastic funnel to pour enough of the Epsom salt solution in to fill each cell of the battery properly.
  5. Insert plastic plugs in the drill holes or replace the battery caps and shake the battery to make sure the Epsom salts solution is well distributed.
  6. Recharge the battery on a slow charge for 24 hours and then re-install it in your car.

Performance Auto Parts

There are many benefits to improving the performance of your vehicle, including an increased resale value, and many improvement methods don’t require a monetary investment in performance auto parts. Checking the air pressure in your tires and keeping them at the recommended levels will ensure optimal gas mileage and handling, and lightening your car’s weight by removing unneeded cargo from your trunk can do the same plus increase speed.

Performance Auto Parts

 Performance Auto Parts
However, beyond the regular maintenance precautions, modifications with performance auto parts will notably improve speed and function without spending the thousands of dollars needed to upgrade an engine or install a turbo system.

K&N Air Filters

K&N air filters increase the speed and power of your vehicle and are better for the environment than traditional air filters. Also inexpensive, K&N air filters go for about $40-$70 dollars depending on the model needed. Investment is minimized in the long run since they won’t need replacement, whereas traditional air filters need to be replaced 5-10 times throughout the lifespan of a vehicle. Unlike traditional air filters, these are reusable. Once you buy a K&N, you will most likely not need to replace your air filter again. These air filters are made of a cotton gauze material and are easily washable.

Performance Chip

Every new vehicle has a computer chip that controls how much torque and horsepower can be displaced. With a performance computer chip, the horsepower and torque of a car can be noticeably increased. A performance computer chip can increase a car’s horsepower by up to 50 increments. Not only do these performance chips increase speed and horsepower of a car, but also increase gas mileage. Another benefit of performance chips is their easy installation. All you have to do is locate your vehicle’s factory computer chip and swap it out with the new one. A performance chip can be purchased at under $300 dollars, are street legal in the United States and will not void a vehicle’s new car warranty.

Cold Air Intake

This modification improves a vehicle’s power by cooling its air intake. Because cold air is denser, it improves air flow, causing the increase in efficiency and power. A cold air intake system is one modification that gets noticed. Benefits include visual enhancements to the appearance of the engine bay (because the parts can be painted colorfully) and a more powerful sounding exhaust system.

Performance Exhaust System

A great way to optimize your torque and horsepower is a catalyst-back exhaust system. These exhaust systems lower exhaust back pressure with large width exhaust pipes and low restriction mufflers. Borla and Flow master are the popular performance exhaust system brands, and can give your vehicle a 5-15% boost in horsepower. These systems are made of the same stainless steel that is used in airplanes; this will also give your vehicle sound a deeper tone. Also you will notice an increase in fuel economy because these systems will help your engine run more efficiently.

How to Become a Test Car Driver

Test car drivers take new car models out on the roads and test tracks to make sure that all of the car’s systems are working properly and are safe and reliable before they finally land in a dealer’s showroom and are offered for sale to the public. You don’t need a master’s degree to become a test car driver, but it helps if you have a love for cars and excellent mechanical know-how. Test car drivers typically work for major auto manufacturers, drive at high speeds for several hours a day, and traverse obstacle courses that require expert driving ability and quick reflexes. Test car driving, however, can be a hard field to break in to.
Test car drivers should be automotive enthusiasts.
Step 1:Get a valid driver’s license and at least a high school diploma. Take and pass a driver’s education program and become knowledgeable about car safety and the rules of the road. Although a college degree is not required to become a test car driver, you should have a strong grasp of the English language and have above-average mathematical and technical ability.

Get a valid driver’s license and at least a high school diploma.
Step 2:Enroll in a car mechanic’s course at your local college. Start tinkering with your own car and explore all there is to know about the engine, the interior and chassis components and how they work. Get a job as an apprentice with a reputable auto mechanic and work alongside her to get your hands dirty. While you’re at it, take a course in go-karting to improve your driving skills and techniques.

Enroll in a car mechanic’s course at your local college.
Step 3:Earn an associate’s degree in mechanical or automotive engineering. Although it’s not required to become a test car driver, it can give you an edge by showing car manufacturers that you’re highly qualified for the job. A degree that includes manufacturing and automotive design courses will also give you a distinct advantage.

Earn an associate's degree in mechanical or automotive engineering.
Step 4:Take speech or writing classes to polish up your oral and written communications skills. A test car driver must be able to communicate test data and the results of his observations about a car to company team members in a professional and technically proficient manner.

Take speech or writing classes to polish up your oral and written communications skills.
Step 5:Look into Ford Motor Company’s certification program–the Electronic Driver Certification Tracking System (EDCERTS)–which tests drivers at four different tracks, skills and speeds. You can check out certification and job opportunities at Ford by accessing its website at

Step 6:Contact major auto manufacturers individually to find out if they’re hiring test drivers or to see if you can get your foot in the door in a lower-level job first. Check out employment opportunities at BMW, Chrysler, Ford, General Motors, and Toyota and complete their online applications.

How to Paint With Single Stage Paint

Use a single-stage paint on your car for a bright, glossy appearance.

Painting an automobile is a time-consuming process that can have your car out of commission for as much as a week. One way to save time while not stinting on the look of the job is by using a single-stage paint instead of a two-stage painting system. Unlike the method of using a two-stage color coat followed by a clear coat, a single-stage paint includes the glossy clear within the color itself. When it dries, the single-stage paint shines to a high gloss. This removes the need for multiple layers of clear coat, allowing you to enjoy your new paint job all the sooner.


1. Clean the surface of the car where you intend to apply the paint with a prepaint cleaner/degreaser. Spray the car with the cleaner and then wipe away any dirt or debris that’s present with a clean cloth. Wait for the cleaner to dry before applying the paint. There is no rinsing necessary.

2. Place masking paper and tape over any areas you do not want to paint. Press the tape tightly in place, making sure that there are no gaps along the edge which may allow paint underneath.

3. Wipe the surface of the car with tack cloth to remove all trace of dust.

4. Fill the paint reservoir of your paint sprayer with an epoxy primer. Set the air pressure for the sprayer to between 40 and 50 psi for a gravity- or siphon-feed gun, or between six and 10 psi for an HVLP sprayer.

5. Spray the car surface with the primer. Spray the edges of the auto body panel, then work the primer onto the hood in a side-to-side motion. Apply the primer in rows until you’ve covered the entire panel before moving onto the next car panel. Allow the primer to dry 20 minutes.

6. Fill the paint sprayer with the single stage paint. Follow the same application method you used for the primer. Overlap each applied paint row by 50 percent to ensure complete and even coverage. Wait 15 minutes for the paint to begin drying.

7. Use the same coverage process with a second and then a third coat of paint. Allow the paint to dry completely for 24 hours before using the vehicle.

Tips & Warnings

  • For safety, paint only in a well-ventilated area while wearing a paint respirator.
  • Some primers require wet sanding prior to applying the single-stage paint coat. Check the manufacturer’s instructions before painting for instructions.

How to Restore Headlights – Headlights Restoration Tips

You have 2 options when it comes to restoring headlamps. You will learn how to restore headlights below:

You can Sand & buff (what I usually do)
You can Sand and Clear Coat using a 2k automotive clear coat (like this post and video above)



In this post we will show you the simple process of wet sanding and clear coating your headlights with 2k clear coat. For those of you who don’t know what 2k clear is, basically you have 2 kinds of clear. The first one is 1k. You see then on the shelves of automotive stores like AutoZone, Checkers, O’Reilly and PepBoys. You know… Brands like  Krylon and Rustoleum.

They have no hardeners in them and are weak in durability plus they are cheap. You can use them, but you won’t get a long lasting finish if that’s what you’re looking for.

If you want to restore headlights by clear coating them, then I recommend to use a 2k clear coat like I do in the video on the top of this post. They can last longer and won’t fade out every year to 18 months. This method has been tested and used by many people.

There are Pros and Cons, and here are the Pros first.

Easy and affordable to clear coat your headlights
Longer lasting than buffing out headlights
Beautiful high finish gloss after clearing
Very durable when comparing to a 1k clear coat
The Cons

Takes 30 min longer because of masking and painting
You need to buy some automotive clear coat and a spray bottle
May peel in 3-5 years if in consistant sunlight. (you can always sand and re clear though)
So, yes! this is easy as heck to do and you can make your headlights look like new again. You can also start a mini business out of it, like I said one of our VIP members Gary did. Here’s a finished picture below of a completed headlight that we did on a Honda CRV.

In conclusion, when performing any kind of headlight restoration know that you have options. You can wet sand and buff or you can clear coat them. …And if you do clear coat them, then go with a 2k clear coat not a cheap 1k aerosol can of clear. You want them to last and by using a 2k clear coat, it will.

If you end up buffing them, just remember that you’ll probably have to do it every year or two depending on how much they wear off. It really only takes about 10 minutes to complete a pair if you buff them out and they will look nice.

Good luck with your headlight restoration projects or business!